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Nuclear Energy

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megha agrawal

on 19 July 2013

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Transcript of Nuclear Energy


What is Nuclear Energy

The atomic energy released by the nucleus of an atom as a result of nuclear fusion, nuclear fission or radioactive decay.

Nuclear energy is made in two ways:-
* Nuclear Fusion
where the nuclei of two atoms are
fused together in a high energy collision which releases energy.
* Nuclear Fission
which releases radiations and energy
when an atom is split into two smaller parts.




















How it works:-
Nuclear Fission
Heat water
to make

The nuclear reactor uses uranium rods as fuel, and the heat is generated by nuclear fission:neutrons fuge with the nucleus of the uranium atoms, which spilt roughly in half and release energy in the form of heat.
There are
main types of
nuclear reactors :-
Water moderated reactors


Fast breeder reactor
The energy in one ounce of uranium is equivalent to the energy in 100 tons
of coal.

On February 1, 2010 in Montpelier, Vermont,US
- Deteriorating underground pipes from the
Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant
leaked radioactive tritium into groundwater supplies resulting to a loss

of 700 million $.
On 22 Oct 2002 in Kalpakkam, India
. Almost 100 kg radioactive sodium at a
fast breeder reactor(Madras Atomic Power Station)
leaked into a purification cabin, ruining a number of valves and operating systems resulting to a loss of 30 million $.
Nuclear power is a sustainable energy source that reduces carbon emissions, increases energy security by decreasing dependence on imported energy sources.

It produces virtually no conventional air pollution, such as greenhouse gases and smog, in contrast to the chief viable alternative of fossil fuel.

It can produce base-load power unlike many renewables which are intermittent energy sources lacking large-scale and cheap ways of storing energy.

M. King Hubbert saw oil as a resource that would run out, and proposed nuclear energy as a replacement energy source.

Proponents claim that the risks of storing waste are small and can be further reduced by using the latest technology in newer reactors, and the operational safety record in the Western world is excellent when compared to the other major kinds of power plants.

Produces small amount of wastes and are reliable.
Nuclear energy produces radiation which consists of subatomic particles that penetrates deep inside the body and initiate cancer

After the nuclear hit in Japan, survivors gave birth to deformed children.

If out enemies get a hold of our plants they could use it against us with the amount of plutonium that we use to make our power.

Plutonium, the bi product of nuclear reactors, has a half life of about 10 thousand years and is therefor hard to dispose of.

Nuclear power plants are very expensive to build.

Uranium is not renewable and can lead to environmental problems through the mining and processing.

Nuclear power is reliable, but a lot of money has to be spend on safety-if it
does go wrong, a nuclear accident can be a major disaster.
*Nuclear energy is used by more than 30 countries around the world. Nuclear technologies have many uses, including powering
Mars rovers
*Nuclear power plants can generate electricity continuously for many months at a time, without interruption.
*Nuclear energy is used to generate around 13% of the world's electricity, with almost no greenhouse gas emissions.
*A single uranium fuel pellet contains as much energy as 480 cubic meters of natural gas, 807 kilos of coal or 149 gallons of oil.
Other uses of nuclear technology besides generating electricity
Nuclear Medicine -
Nuclear medicine uses radiation to allow doctors to make a quick, accurate diagnosis of the functioning of person's specific organs, or to treat them. Radiotherapy can be used to treat some medical conditions, especially cancer, using radiation to weaken or destroy particular targeted cells.
Nuclear Power Plants all over the world.
Anti-Nuclear assertions
Nuclear reactors are unsafe, Chernobyl was typical,
and resulted in a huge death toll.

Nuclear energy is too expensive, energy efficiency is
all that's needed, with more use of renewables.

Nuclear power enjoys massive government subsidies.

Transport of uranium and other radioactive material is hazardous.

There is no safe level of radiation exposure.
The future of nuclear power

The world will need greatly increased energy supply in
the next 20 years, especially cleanly-generated electricity.

Electricity demand is increasing twice as fast as overall energy use and is likely to rise 76% to 2030.

Nuclear power provides about 13.5% of the world's electricity, almost 24% of electricity in OECD countries, and 34% in the EU. Its use is increasing.

Nuclear power is the most environmentally benign way of producing electricity on a large scale.

Renewable energy sources other than hydro have high generating costs but are helpful at the margin in providing clean power.

Fuel Availability
Unlike fossil fuels which are available to most of the countries, uranium is very scare resource and exist in only few of the countries. Permissions of several international authorities are required before someone can even thought of building a nuclear power plant.

Non Renewable
Nuclear energy uses uranium which is a scarce resource and is not found in many countries. Most of the countries rely on other countries for the constant supply of this fuel. It is mined and transported like any other metal. Supply will be available as long as it is there. Once all extracted, nuclear plants will not be of any use. Due to its hazardous effects and limited supply, it cannot be termed as renewable.

Therefore,we need to conserve uranium as it is a very
important element in the processing of the nuclear
Some of the major causes for
the drawback of nuclear energy
To conclude, their is a
very low disparity rate

between the consumption and production of nuclear energy as it is very essential in generating electricity, etc.

-Megha Agrawal
Two technologies could greatly extend the uranium supply itself. Neither is economical now, but both could be in the future if the price of uranium increases substantially.

First, the extraction of uranium from seawater would make available 4.5 billion metric tons of uranium—a 60,000-year supply at present rates.

Second, fuel-recycling fast-breeder reactors, which generate more fuel than they consume, would use less than 1 percent of the uranium needed for current Light Water Reactors. Breeder reactors could match today's nuclear output for 30,000 years using only the NEA(nuclear energy agency)-estimated supplies.
Heat for Desalination-
Heat from nuclear reactors can be used directly, instead or as well as being used to generate electricity. This heat can be used for district heating, as process heat for industry or for desalination plants, used to make clean drinkable water from seawater.
Space missions-
Radioisotope thermal generators are used in space missions. The heat generated by the decay of a radioactive source, often Plutonium-238, is used to generate electricity.The latest Mars rover, Curiosity, is much bigger and uses RTGs for heat and electricity as solar panels would not be able to supply enough electricity.
There are currently 435 civil nuclear power reactors around the world, with a further of 67 under construction.

The world leader in the production of nuclear energy is
accounting for more than 30% of worldwide nuclear generation of electricity.The USA has 104 nuclear power reactors in 31 states, that are operated by 30 different power companies.

According to the world nuclear association ,these are the top eleven nuclear dependent nations in 2011:-
USA – 81.2%
France – 77.7 %
Belgium – 54.0 %
Slovakia – 54.0 %
Ukraine – 47.2 %
Hungary – 43.2 %
Slovenia – 41.7 %
Switzerland – 40.8 %
Sweden – 39.6 %
South Korea– 34.6 %
Armenia – 33.2 %
Nuclear raectors worldwide
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