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From Citizen to Soldier and Back Again

My presentation on student development theory.
by

Marie Baker

on 26 September 2013

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Transcript of From Citizen to Soldier and Back Again

From Citizen to Soldier and Back Again:

Using Student Development Theory
to Assist Returning Veterans

Marie Baker
The University of Southern Mississippi When Johnny Comes Marching Home Again The Things They Carry I Have a Theory About That... Schlossberg's Transition Theory Chickering's Theory of Identity Development Malcolm Knowles's Andragogy: An Adult Learning Theory And knowing is half the battle... What makes you an expert? Questions, Concerns, Tomatoes...
Unless they are in uniform, veterans can be an invisible population on our campuses.

As of 2005, there were over 360,000 veterans returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF).

By 2009, the numbers swelled to 1,893,284.
Veterans are facing a number of issues upon their return from combat.

For our purposes, we will focus on readjustment & mental health.




Student development theories can help advisors better understand the needs of different student populations.

3 theories:
- Schlossberg's Transition Theory
- Chickering's Theory of Identity Development
- Malcolm Knowles's Andragogy


- 1 out of every 4 OIF/OEF veterans are seeking treatment
for a combat related illness

- Some of the most prevalent mental health issues are:

* PTSD
* Anxiety disorders
* TBI - Traumatic Brain Injury

- Suicide rates among veterans are also high.


- General
* Transitioning from Battle mind to home mind

* Reconciling their military and civilian lives

- Educational
* Older than traditional aged students

* Either first time or returning students Readjustment Mental Health Developed in the 1980's

Created with adults in mind, but has proven useful in student populations.

Updated in 1995 to include the 4 S's and an integration with the Cormier & Hackney Model.
What's a Transition? "Any event, or non-event, that results in changed relationships, routines, assumptions, and roles" (Schlossberg, in Evans et al, p.111).

3 types of transitions:
- 1. Anticipated
- 2. Unanticipated
- 3. Non-events

"Moving in, moving out, moving through" (p. 112). The 4 S's

1. Situation
2. Self
3. Support
4. Strategies



One of the fathers of student development theory.

Felt that a student's development was influenced by institutional environment.

Education and Identity (1969, 1993), is a landmark work in the student affairs field

Best known for his Seven Vectors
The Seven Vectors - 1. Developing Competence
- 2. Managing Emotions
- 3. Moving Through Autonomy Towards Interdependence
- 4. Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships
- 5. Establishing Identity
- 6. Developing Purpose
- 7. Developing Integrity The Veteran Application

Schlossberg
- Major Life Transition

Chickering
- Who am I now?

Knowles
- Experiences, motivations, and learning needs differ from the
regular population.

I'm Only One Person...
Learn to make effective referrals

Stay Informed

Check out veterans advocacy groups

When all else fails, ask!

I Want YOU To... One person can make a difference.

The VA representative on your campus should
not be the only person knowledgeable of
veterans affairs. Something to Keep in Mind "Warriors and their family members are often surprised at how difficult the transition period is after coming back from a combat deployment. Many expect that they'll just need a little time for things to go back to "normal," but find that "normal" is elusive and time is relative."

- COL Charles W. Hoge, MD, US Army (Ret.).
"Once A Warrior, Always A Warrior: Navigating
the Transition from Combat to Home"
Knowles is best known for his work on andragogy.

Four Definitions of Adulthood

Six Assumptions of Adult Learners
Act Like An Adult! Knowles gives four definitions of an adult.

- 1. Biological

- 2. Legal

- 3. Social

- 4. Psychological

You Know What They Say About Assumptions... Six assumptions regarding adult learners.

- 1. The Need to Know

- 2. The Learners' Self Concept

- 3. The Role of The Learners' Experience

- 4. Readiness to Learn

- 5. Orientation to Learning

- 6. Motivation
Works Cited Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., & Guido-DiBrito, F. 1998. Student Development in College: Theory, Practice, & Research. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco.

Hefferman, T. 2006. "Ten Numbers on the State of Iraq War Veterans."
http://www.esquire.com/features/ESQ0306IRAQNUMBERS_212

Hoge, C.W. 2010. Once A Warrior, Always A Warrior: Navigating the Transition from Combat to Home. GPP Life: Guilford.

Ketyian, A. 2007. "Suicide Epidemic Among Veterans."
http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/11/13/cbsnews_investigates/main3496471.shtml

Knowles, M. 1984. The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species. Gulf Publishing Company: Houston.

Sullivan, P. & Hohle, L. 2009. "More Than 425,000 Iraq & Afghanistan
Veterans Treated by VA."
http://www.veteransforcommonsense.org/index.php/veterans-category-
articles/1216-paul-sullivan-and-lauren-hohle
What Does This Have to Do With Me? Aside from the classroom, advisors have a majority of contact with students on college campuses.

Like other students, student veterans can have different sets of needs depending on their situations Chickering's Environmental Influences - 1. Institutional Objectives
- 2. Institutional Size
- 3. Student - Faculty Relationships
- 4. Curriculum
- 5. Teaching
- 6. Friendships & Student Communities
- 7. Student Development Programs & Services Cormier & Hackney Integration 1. Relationship building
2. Assessment
- All of the 4 S's
3. Goal Setting
- All of the 4 S's
4. Intervention
- All but Situation
5. Termination & Follow Up Now that we know this information, what do we do with it?
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