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Communication: A Critical/Cultural Introduction
Transcript of Communication: A Critical/Cultural Introduction
A Critical/Cultural Introduction
John T. Warren & Deanna L. Fassett Chapter 3
Public Advocacy: Commitments and Responsibility
Introduction What is public advocacy? Listening as Public Advocacy Compassionate
Critical Listening Compassionate Critical
Listening Hegemony Public Advocacy:
Integrity in Argumentation All communication with others has effects. While Freire's work positions us as
Gramsci positions us critically as
receivers, listeners, and audiences... Domination by consent...
The process of granting some group with more power and privilege the ability to shape our world views, attitudes, beliefs, expectations, and actions. 1)Recognize the conditions that affect our ability to listen Dialogic Communication
and Critical Thinking Reasoning, Interrogating Reasoning Communication Creates
Community. What kind of community do you want?
What kind of community will nurture and sustain you? DQ #1 Wksht Is teaching a form of advocacy? When is it NOT a form of advocacy? Think of teachers you have had in your past that
you consider to be "advocates" ? What teachers in your past would you not consider to be advocates? What does it mean to say "Teachers are always already advocates..."
Now Answer DQ#2 on your worksheet. An Example or two of public
advocacy and critical thinking in public advocacy
Public Advocacy Model (as applied to education) Problem-Posing Praxis Reflexivity as opposed to banking approaches "reflection and action on the world in order to transform it." engaging the process of situating ourselves as part of the phenomenon or problem we are working to describe. a way of drawing out rather than cramming in
learning. Students are not passively receiving information, they are making meaning by linking what they don't know to what they already know. Where else in communication practice can this idea be applied? Answer DQ #5 on your worksheet Answer DQ #4 on your
worksheet reflection v. reflexivity...
implies a back and forth process of thinking about how we act, why we act, what that means, who it enables, who it hurts, and so forth... Answer DQ #6 on your worksheet practice v. praxis...
even our most basic communication is action in the world, that if we, as people, fail to reflect on that communication, or if we only reflect and never speak our truths, then we neglect our responsibility in weaving the social fabric that holds us together. Answer DQ#7 on your worksheet How is it possible for people to willingly participate in systems and institutions of domination particularly when those very systems cause them harm? (example: shoes story on p. 47) Answer DQ#8 on your worksheet 2)Take stock of the aspects of listening where you struggle 3)Teach ourselves to refocus 1) Be empathic: consider how the speaker is thinking and feeling--in general, about the course, and about her/his topic 2) What would you need from your listeners if you were feeling similarly? 3) Consider your own ethical responsibility and relationship to the speaker 4) Consider your health and well-being and work to be in optimal health and mental awareness in difficult listening situations. 5) Consider yoga and meditation and tai chi or other similar exercises to help you physically and mentally focus 6) Consider that even though it may seem like the speaker is talking and we are listening, this communication is not one way or top down, it is dialogical. Martin Buber: the relationship between speaker as "I-thou," (as opposed to "I-it," and "I-you,") meaning an ethical, respectful engagement between people who must consider other's perspectives carefully but not necessarily agree. But what does dialogic communication look like?
with as opposed to on, at or for someone else Answer DQ#9 on your worksheet Dialogic Communication Critical Thinking Critical as used in "everyday" settings:
"urgent," "significant," "negative,"
But what about other settings? How can we reconceptualize "critical"?
yes, identification of flaws is important and one necessary aspect of "critical"
the second aspect is associating critical with "hope" and the possibility of "change." Answer DQ#10 on your worksheet. Reasoning A logical fallacy is a mistake in reasoning
Avoid fallacious reasoning because:
1) It is your responsibility to be truthful and ethical in your efforts to persuade other people
2) One unchecked instance of fallacious reasoning calls into doubt all other information you share, not only for whatever text or presentation you are submitting for judgment but for all others as well. Interrogating Reasoning Two methods: Toulmin's Model & Logical Fallacies Toulmin's Model 1) In each attempt to persuade, we have an argument that takes the form of a claim--that is something we assert to be true or false, right or wrong, this or that. 2) In order to be persuasive, we have to marshal evidence to support that claim: statistics, examples, testimony, or other forms of support 3) We must provide a warrant, which is the connective tissue that links the evidence to the claim. Claim Data Warrant Basics of the Model Logical Fallacies Slippery slope reasoning
Ad hominem attacks
Non sequitur Answer DQ#11 on your worksheet Reflexivity Revisited We have a responsibility to reflect on what we say (or write) and how we say (or write) it. This responsibility extends not just to our intentions but also to the effects of our communication. Our communication will always situate us in relation to issues that do or do not matter to us. When we get up and speak disaffected, poorly prepared, and relatively empty arguments, we take a step closer to "who cares?" "half-assed," and "whatever." Answer DQ#12 on your worksheet.