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Things that Impact our Lives

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Rashilina Durairajasingam

on 2 November 2014

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Transcript of Things that Impact our Lives

THINGS THAT IMPACT OUR LIVES


What is waste management?
Garbage Do
Garbage Dont's
Don't use cardboard boxes for yard waste. Once emptied they become wind borne litter.
Don't leave your garbage on or in front of vacant lots for pick up. Garbage is only picked up at properties improved for occupancy.
Don't stack garbage and yard waste beside mailboxes, near water or gas meters, or under low hanging tree limbs or utility wires.
Don't place more than 5 cubic yards (30 bags or a standard sized pickup truck load) of yard waste out per week.
Don't exceed one cubic yard (approximately 2 construction wheelbarrows) of building materials for collection each week. Materials should not exceed five feet in length and are collected on garbage day.
Don't place medical waste in recycle bins or garbage receptacles.
Don't leave car parts curbside for collection-- contact your local scrap dealer for disposal.
Don't block the street -- place all residential waste at curb or roadway within five feet of the traveled portion of the street.
Don't put oil tanks, 55-gallon drums and 200-gallon drums curbside for collection until emptied and punctured to prevent fire hazard. Propane gas tanks must be empty.

Water

Water Pollution has taken toll of all the surviving species of the earth. Almost 60% of the species live in water bodies. It occurs due to several factors; the industrial wastes dumped into the rivers and other water bodies cause an imbalance in the water leading to its severe contamination and death of aquatic species. Also spraying insecticides, pesticides like DDT on plants pollutes the ground water system and oil spills in the oceans have caused irreparable damage to the water bodies. Eutrophication is another big source; it occurs due to daily activities like washing clothes, utensils near lakes, ponds or rivers; this forces detergents to go into water which blocks sunlight from penetrating, thus reducing oxygen and making it inhabitable. Water pollution not only harms the aquatic beings but it also contaminates the entire food chain by severely affecting humans dependent on these. Water-borne diseases like cholera, diarrhea have also increased in all places.
Air
Air Pollution is the most prominent and dangerous form of pollution. It occurs due to many reasons. Excessive burning of fuel which is a necessity of our daily lives for cooking, driving and other industrial activities; releases a huge amount of chemical substances in the air everyday; these pollute the air.Smoke from chimneys, factories, vehicles or burning of wood basically occurs due to coal burning; this releases sulfur dioxide into the air making it toxic. The effects of air pollution are evident too. Release of sulfur dioxide and hazardous gases into the air causes global warming and acid rain; which in turn have increased temperatures, erratic rains and droughts worldwide; making it tough for the animals to survive. We breathe in every polluted particle from the air; result is increase in asthma and cancer in the lungs.
Soil

Soil pollution occurs due to incorporation of unwanted chemicals in the soil due to human activities. Use of insecticides and pesticides absorbs the nitrogen compounds from the soil making it unfit for plants to derive nutrition from. Release of industrial waste, mining and deforestation also exploits the soil. Since plants can’t grow properly, they can’t hold the soil and this leads to soil erosion. Soil contamination or soil pollution is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. It is typically caused by industrial activity, agricultural chemicals, or improper disposal of waste. The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (such as naphthalene and benzo(a)pyrene), solvents, pesticides, lead, and other heavy metals. Contamination is correlated with the degree of industrialization and intensity of chemical usage
What is pollution?
Pollution is the presence in or introduction into the environment of a substance or thing that has harmful or poisonous effects. .Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or non point source pollution. Air pollution is the accumulation in the atmosphere of substances that, in sufficient concentrations, endanger human health or produce other measured effects on living matter and other materials. Among the major sources of pollution are power and heat generation, the burning of solid wastes, industrial processes, and, especially, transportation. The six major types of pollutants are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, particulates, sulfur dioxide, and photochemical oxidants.Water pollution is the introduction into fresh or ocean waters of chemical, physical, or biological material that degrades the quality of the water and affects the organisms living in it. This process ranges from simple addition of dissolved or suspended solids to discharge of the most insidious and persistent toxic pollutants (such as pesticides, heavy metals, and non degradable, bio accumulative, chemical compounds).Soil pollution is mainly due to chemicals in herbicides (weed killers) and pesticides (poisons which kill insects and other invertebrate pests). Litter is waste material dumped in public places such as streets, parks, picnic areas, at bus stops and near shops.
Hazardous Materials
Class A: Compressed gas
This class includes compressed gases, dissolved gases, and gases liquefied by compression or refrigeration.
Class B: Flammable and combustible material
This class includes solids, liquids, and gases capable of catching fire in the presence of a spark or open flame under normal working conditions.
Class C: Oxidizing material
These materials increase the risk of fire if they come in contact with flammable or combustible materials.
Class D: Poisonous and infectious material
Division 1: Materials Causing Immediate and Serious Toxic Effects
These materials can cause death or immediate injury when a person is exposed to small amounts. Examples: sodium cyanide, hydrogen sulphide
Class D: Poisonous and infectious material
Division 2: Materials Causing Other Toxic EFFECTS
These materials can cause life-threatening and serious long-term health problems as well as less severe but immediate reactions in a person who is repeatedly exposed to small amounts.
Class D: Poisonous and infectious material
Division 3: Bio hazardous Infectious MATERIAL
These materials contain an organism that has been shown to cause disease or to be a probable cause of disease in persons or animals.
Class E: Corrosive material
This class includes caustic and acid materials that can destroy the skin or eat through metals. Examples: sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid
Class F: Dangerously reactive material
These products may self-react dangerously (for example, they may explode) upon standing or when exposed to physical shock or to increased pressure or temperature, or they emit toxic gases when exposed to water.
Whats WHMIS
WHMIS stands for Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System. It is a Canada-wide system to provide information on hazardous materials used in the workplace. WHMIS was developed by the collaborative efforts of government, industry and labor and is supported by both federal and provincial legislation. Exposure to hazardous materials can cause or contribute to a variety of health effects such as irritation, burns, sensitization, heart aliments, kidney and lung damage and cancer. Some materials may also contribute to fires, explosions and other accidents if improperly stored or handled. It is estimated that about 25% of Canadian workers are exposed to chemical hazards on the job.Labels must be placed on all containers of hazardous materials to alert employers and workers to the dangers of the product and basic safety precautions. Material Safety Data Sheets must be prepared for all hazardous products. These data sheets provide more detailed information about the product than can be put on a label. Worker education programs provide instruction on the hazards of chemicals in the workplace and training in understanding and using the WHMIS information.
Why was WHMIS created?
By: Lynna and Rashilina
Waste Management
Sources Of Pollution
Hazardous Materials
How does Waste Management effect us?
HOW DOES THIS EFFECT US?
How WE can prevent waste?
How can WE make a difference?
What is Waste Management?
What are sources of pollution?
Air Pollution is the most prominent and dangerous form of pollution. It occurs due to many reasons. Excessive burning of fuel which is a necessity of our daily lives for cooking, driving and other industrial activities; releases a huge amount of chemical substances in the air everyday; these pollute the air.

Smoke from chimneys, factories, vehicles or burning of wood basically occurs due to coal burning; this releases sulfur dioxide into the air making it toxic. The effects of air pollution are evident too. Release of sulfur dioxide and hazardous gases into the air causes global warming and acid rain; which in turn have increased temperatures, erratic rains and droughts worldwide; making it tough for the animals to survive. We breathe in every polluted particle from the air; result is increase in asthma and cancer in the lungs.
Accumulation of wastes due to its improper disposal is a major problem in our country. Every person, on an average generates about 400 to 500 grams of wastes per day.

In the absence of proper waste management, this waste lies littered on our streets, road corners and improperly disposed of in vacant land. All of these are serious health hazards apart from being eyesores. If they are not cleared regularly at the earliest, they invite host of problems like increasing numbers of insect vectors like flies, mosquitoes, etc., scavengers such as stray dogs, pigs and rats which spread dangerous diseases. It also generates bad odor and causes pollution.
How does pollution effect us?
How do hazardous materials affect us?
The major form that pollution takes is the release of toxic or harmful substances into the natural environment. Those substances could be chemicals, such as lead or dioxin or PCBs, or they could be biological, such as disease-causing bacteria or viruses. The release of those substances to the environment might cause disease or death to plants, animals and humans. They might kill plants over a wide area, denuding the landscape and killing or driving off wildlife, or they might sicken or kill aquatic life and humans who take them in through drinking water. Pollution can consist of toxic materials released into the air also, which can settle on the ground with toxic effects, or stay in the atmosphere and cause changes in climate. All types of pollution – air, water and soil pollution – have an impact on the living environment.The effects in living organisms may range from mild discomfort to serious diseases such as cancer to physical deformities; ex., extra or missing limbs in frogs.
When hazardous wastes are released in the air, water, or on the land they can spread, contaminating even more of the environment and posing greater threats to our health. If a very small amount of a hazardous substance is released, it may become diluted to the point where it will not cause injury.
Inhalation - we can breathe vapors from hazardous liquids.
Ingestion - we can eat fish, fruits and vegetables, or meat that has been contaminated through exposure to hazardous substances. The most common type of exposure is drinking contaminated water.
Dermal exposure - a substance can come into direct contact with and be absorbed by our skin.
Air Pollution
Air pollution consists of solid particles and gases. Many pollutants are carcinogens. People who breathe in these poisons are at a higher risk for asthma and reproductive-system damage. Humans are not the only living creatures affected by toxic air pollutants. Some toxins, like mercury, settle onto plants and into water sources that are then consumed by animals. The health effects of these poisons are then magnified up the food chain. Animals that are are at the top of the food chain end up with the largest concentrations of toxins in their bodies.
Water Pollution
Water is a necessity of life. People and animals need clean drinking water. Farmers need water to irrigate crops. People enjoy using lakes and rivers for recreation. Unfortunately, this precious resource is easily contaminated by agricultural runoff, mining activities, waste treatment plants and improperly disposed-of industrial waste. Microbial contaminants include bacteria and viruses. Most people can fight off the microbial contaminants, however, people with compromised immune systems can get dangerously ill. Contaminants like solvents, pesticides, radium and arsenic are more sinister. This type of pollution can cause long-term health problems for people. Wildlife can also die from exposure.
Soil Containment
Soil contamination consists of either liquid or solid particles mixed with soil. The contaminants may be physically attached to the soil particles or they may be in the spaces between the soil particles. Contamination results when hazardous substances are spilled or buried in the soil. It can also occur when pollutants settle on the soil, such as chemicals or waste from an industrial smokestack. Plants grown in contaminated soil take up the hazardous substances through their roots. Humans or animals that ingest these plants may get sick. People and animals can also inhale soil contaminants through dust that is present in the air or absorb these hazardous chemicals through their skin. People exposed to dioxin in soil experienced a higher rate of diabetes as well as cardiovascular and endocrine problems over the course of the study
Waste prevention, also known as source reduction, means using less material to get a job done. Waste prevention methods help create less waste in the first place—before recycling. If organizations take a good look at their recycling collection data, they are likely to see ways to reduce waste first through waste prevention, thereby decreasing purchasing costs and the amount of material that must be managed for recycling. Reduce needless consumption and the generation of waste. Reuse any item that can be reused or give it to a person or charity that can reuse it. Recycle whatever discards remain if you can and only dispose what you must.
How WE can prevent Pollution?
Pollution affects all the elements of an ecosystem, including air, water and soil. Solutions must be found to combat all types of pollution so that delicate ecosystems can thrive once again.

Become less reliant on your car. It's not just turning on your ignition and driving to the supermarket that pollutes the air. It's all the energy that goes into creating cars and the roads we drive them on. The manufacturing of car parts, the production of fuel, the creation of roads, and the emissions from burning fuel all play a part in polluting the air. If you travel a lot in cars, driving less is a major step you can take to help stop air pollution.

There are several things you can do to stop water pollution and they are very easy. Steps you can take to help prevent water pollution include:
• Don't litter, especially in or near water sources
• Organize a community cleanup event near a river or lake where you live
• Use green household cleaners and laundry detergents
• Use natural lawn fertilizers, such as manure instead of chemical fertilizers
• Buy organic food that is produced without the use of chemical pesticides or fertilizers
• Dispose of hazardous materials, such as paint, motor oil, antifreeze and lawn fertilizers responsibly, never down household drains or in the gutter
To help prevent top soil pollution, change over to organic cleaners and detergents, and disposing of toxic chemicals and solvents responsibly. Other steps you can take to help stop land pollution include:
• Recycle paper, plastics, aluminum cans and other materials to reduce garbage in landfills
• Join a community effort to replant trees
• Buy reusable cloth grocery bags to use instead of plastic bags

How can we prevent hazardous waste?
Proper Disposal
Be aware that you may have to package hazardous materials such as broken compact fluorescent lightbulbs before disposal. The EPA recommends that you double-bag any waste if you accidentally break a mercury-containing compact fluorescent lightbulb. Never pour household hazardous wastes such as cleaning products, paints and solvents down your sink or into any water body. If your city does not have a collection facility, contact your city hall to see if it has special collection days. If you're in doubt, consult the manufacturers' instructions on how to dispose of these materials.
Exercise Caution
When you use any hazardous substance, take the proper precautions to prevent accidents or spills. Secure any lids or caps when these products aren't in use. Be aware of your surroundings and where you placed the containers. The Air and Waste Management Association says even a single quart of spilled oil can contaminate up to 150,000 gallons of water if it enters a river or stream through runoff. The association is an international nonprofit organization of environmental professionals.
Do put your garbage, yard waste and recycling at the curb no later than 6 a.m. on collection day and remove empty containers no later than 6 a.m. the day after collection day.
Do contain residential yard waste in standard cans up to 45 gallon capacity or sealed plastic bags.
Do keep the weight of waste and container at 40 pounds or less and follow quantity and size limits for yard waste and building materials.
Do make sure all garbage cans have tight fitting lids, are free of sharp or jagged edges, with bottoms in tact. Call your service for removal of broken garbage cans, or clearly label with a signed note authorizing removal.
Do wrap all broken glass in newspaper to seal for safety and place it only in garbage cans.
Do put furniture and other bulky items curbside with your household waste.
Do separate yard waste from garbage for collection.
Do flatten corrugated cardboard boxes and cut into 2'x3' pieces.
WHMIS was created to reduce injury and disease by communicating specific health and safety information about controlled products so that the information can be used to reduce exposure to hazardous materials.he purpose of WHMIS is to give all working Canadians a uniform and appropriate quantity and quality of information about hazardous materials used in the workplace.Many Canadian workers are exposed to hazardous materials on the job. In the past, information about these materials has often been incomplete, inconsistent or not available at all. This means that employers and workers were often unaware of the hazards of a material in the workplace, and of the necessary handling precautions. This lack of awareness can cause serious occupational illness and injury.By setting standards for the type and amount of information to be given to the users of hazardous materials, it is expected that accidents and diseases caused by hazardous materials in the workplace will be reduced.
Waste management is an industry which revolves around the collection, storage, and disposal of waste, ranging from ordinary household waste to the waste generated at nuclear power plants. Developing effective waste management strategies is critical for nations all over the world, as many forms of waste can develop into a major problem when they are not handled properly. Numerous firms provide waste management services of a variety of types, and several governments also regulate the waste management industry for safety and efficently.Humans generate a great deal of waste as a byproduct of their existence, and they always have, as evidence at dumping pits located in or around archaeological sites can attest. Every task, from preparing a meal to manufacturing a car, is accompanied with the production of waste material, which cannot be used for other things and needs to be disposed of effectively. If not contained and handled appropriately, waste can balloon into a huge problem, as for example when garbage ends up in the open ocean where it can make animals and birds sick.
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