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Historical Events Leading to Apartheid
Transcript of Historical Events Leading to Apartheid
(in South Africa) A policy or system of segregation or discrimination on grounds of race. a·part·heid GAME Sources:
1."Apartheid Legislation 1850s-1970s | South African History Online." Apartheid Legislation 1850s-1970s | South African History Online. South African History Online, n.d. Web. 05 Mar. 2013. <http://sahistory.org.za/politics-and-society/apartheid-legislation-1850s-1970s>.
2."First Anglo-Boer War 1880-1881 | South African History Online." First Anglo-Boer War 1880-1881 | South African History Online. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Mar. 2013.
3."Pre-Apartheid Era." Mtholyoke. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Mar. 2013. <http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~shafi20k/preyes.html>.
4."South Africa Profile." BBC News. BBC, 20 Dec. 2012. Web. 05 Mar. 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14094918>.
5. "The History of Apartheid in South Africa." The History of Apartheid in South Africa. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2013.
The Legacy of Apartheid. YouTube. YouTube, 27 Feb. 2009. Web. 04 Mar. 2013.
6. "South Africa Profile." BBC News. BBC, 20 Dec. 2012.
7. "United Nations and Apartheid Timeline 1946-1994 | South African History Online." United Nations and Apartheid Timeline 1946-1994 | South African History Online. N.p., n.d.
Bond, Patrick. Elite transition: From apartheid to neoliberalism in South Africa. London: Pluto Press, 2000.
8. Dhansay, Hanifa, and Neil Parsons. Apartheid and resistance. VCTA, 1996. 1949 1950- Population Regulation Act: People classified into three main races- White, Black, or Colored. People were separated based on appearance, social acceptance and descent. Areas of land were divided into racially segregated regions making it illegal to trespass into another one. 1953-Reservation of Separate Amenities Act: Decided by the Nationalist government, separate amenities were created for different racial groups, such as restrooms, parks, and beaches
1953-Bantu Education Act: created a separate educational system for Blacks.
1953-Criminal Law Amendment Act were passed, which increased penalties for protesting against or supporting the repeal of a law. The penalties included fines, imprisonment and whippings. Indemnity Act: States that any government or authority official are justified in their actions for the respect and good faith for the presentation of the Republic. 1962- Sabotage Act: Augmented the Presidential power to declare organizations illegal and listed the grounds for sabotage. South Africa was colonized by the English and Dutch in the seventeenth century. English domination of the Dutch descendents (known as Boers or Afrikaners) resulted in the Dutch establishing the new colonies of Orange Free State and Transvaal. The discovery of diamonds and gold in these lands around 1900 and the opposition of English Rule resulted in an English invasion which sparked the Boer Wars. •War Began: December 16, 1880
•Between: Transvaal and Orange Free State Boers and British
•Why: British government wanted to invade Transvaal to overtake the coast as a British Colony led by Sir Theophilus Shepstone in 1877
•Boers did not agree and began to protest against the annexation of Transvaal
•The battles that took place: Bronkhorstspruit, Laingsnek, Schuinshoogte (Ingogo) and Majuba
• The sieges that took place: Potchefstroom, Pretoria, Marabastad, Lydenburg, Rustenburg, Standerton and Wakkerstroom
•Advantages of Boers- it was their homeland
•Boers defeat British in all four battles
•Primary reason for going to war was the British annexation of Transvaal
•War Ended: March of 1881
•Who won: Boers regained independence •War Began: October 11, 1899
•Why: Britain disagreed with the Boer’s suggestion of ending the disputes with negotiations between the two states
•Who was President:
Paul Kruger- Transvaal
Cecil John Rhodes was president of Cape Colony
•Gold was discovered on Witwatersrand in Transvaal making South Africa top gold producer
•Britain prospered in industry and trade and thrived for gold at the time
•Rhodes had the plan of overthrowing Kruger through the Jameson Raid to establish Transvaal as a British Colony
•Jameson Raid began on December 29, 1895 but failed
•Siege of Ladysmith in Natal and Mafeking in Cape Colony by Boers but the British later defeated Boers
•September 1, 1900 Transvaal was annexed
•Lord Herbert Kitchener created a strategy to potentially end the war
scorched earth policy (destroy anything that could be an advantage to the
concentration camps expansion (especially women, children and blacks)
•Boers continued to surrender
•Treaty of Vereeniging ended the war in 1902
•Treaty gave British control over the Transvaal and Orange Free State
•Who Won: British won 1951- the Bantu Authorities Act established a basis for ethnic government in African reserves, known as ``homelands.'' These homelands were independent states to which each African was assigned by the government according to the record of origin (which was frequently inaccurate). All political rights, including voting, held by an African were restricted to the designated homeland. The idea was that they would be citizens of the homeland, losing their citizenship in South Africa and any right of involvement with the South African Parliament. 1960- a large group of blacks in Sharpeville refused to carry their passes; the government declared a state of emergency. The emergency lasted for 156 days, leaving 69 people dead and 187 people wounded. 1948, Dr. D.F. Malan, became the prime architect of apartheid and led the National Party in the first campaign that centered on openly racist appeals to white unity. The Party promised that if elected it would make permanent separation. The National Party swept into office, winning 80 seats. With the enactment of apartheid laws in 1948, racial discrimination was then institutionalized. Race laws touched every aspect of social life, including a prohibition of marriage between non-whites and whites, and the sanctioning of ``white-only'' jobs. Answers to the Fill in the Blanks! 1. Dutch and British
4. Dr. Daniel Farncois Malan
10. Soweto Uprising Why is Apartheid history important?