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Colonial Rule and Pastoral Life
Transcript of Colonial Rule and Pastoral Life
Under colonial rule, the life of pastoralism changed dramatically. Their grazing grounds shrank, their movements were controlled and they had to pay more revenue. This affected the trades adversely. There were four rules concerning pastoralism. We will see how.
The First Rule
The colonial states wanted to transform all grazing land to cultivated land. This was because land revenue was one of the main sources of resource.
The Second Rule
In these, some general grazing rights of pastoralists were granted but their movements were controlled by the colonial government. The officials believed that when the herds were on the move, they trampled the seeds that grew underground.
The British officials were always suspicious about the nomads, in other words they thought of them as criminals. In 1871, the colonial government passed the Criminals Tribes Act.
The Fourth Rule
To expand its revenue income, the colonial government looked for every possible source of taxation on the nomads. So taxes on land, on canal water, on salt, etc. Pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal that grazed in the field.
How did these Changes affect the Lives of the Pastoralists?
When grazing lands were taken over and turned into fields, the pastureland declined. As this happened, the animals feed on the remaining grass, and this led to intensive grazing of these pastures.
The Third Rule
Map of Pastoralists in India in the colonial times
How did the Pastoralists Cope with these Changes?
Pastoralists reacted to these changes in many ways.
Some reduced their no. of cattle.
Others discovered new pastures to graze.
Over the years, the richer pastoralists bought land and gave up their nomadic life.
Question & Answers
Why did the colonial states want to transform all grazing land to cultivated land ?
When was the Criminals Tribe Act passed ?
To expand its revenue income, name objects on which extra tax was applied.
Name 2 ways in which Pastoralists reacted to the changes caused by the colonial rule.
To analyze the colonial rule and its effects on the pastoralists in India.