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Vaccines: Bench to Clinic
Transcript of Vaccines: Bench to Clinic
From Bench to Clinic
Clinical Trials & Licensing
Oxygen and Respiratory
Characteristics of an
; minimal risk of adverse reactions
Ease of administration
; given in a single dose
from live pathogen and
many years after vaccination
Induction of neutralizing Abs and protective T cells
, allowing widespread vaccination in developing countries
: Easy to transport and administer, even in countries with minimal infrastructure
against different variations of the pathogen
Future Vaccine Strategies
"The 4th Century"
Novel live vaccines
Routes of administration
Inactivated to block replication; maintain immunogenicity
Avoids use of whole organism
Not immunogenic in <2 years old
Induces minimal antibody isotype switching
No immunological memory induced
Immunogenicity improved by conjugation to carrier proteins
2. Immune potentiator
3. Delivery system
Substances that enhance the immune response; enhance the immunogenicity of vaccines
Not all antigens are immunogens
Increase duration of immune response
Enhance immune response in weakly responding populations
Decrease amount of antigen
Decrease number of doses
Which type of vaccine most likely requires an adjuvant?
Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice (ACIP)
-The government of each state decides whether people in that state will be required to get a vaccine
Medical, religious, and often philosophical/personal belief exemptions are available
-All states require that children be vaccinated for certain diseases before school entry (the required immunizations vary by state)
Influenced by economics and politics
Reasons for Refusal
Concern that the vaccine might cause harm
Low safety profile of vaccine
Low susceptibility to disease
Low vaccine efficacy
Severity of disease was low
Children receive too many vaccines
Role of Health Care Providers
Cited by parents of vaccinated and un-vaccinated children as the most frequent source of information about vaccinations
Play a critical role in highlighting the benefits of vaccinations and addressing parental concerns about its risks
Ok for provider to discontinue relationship with families that refuse vaccines?
Pharmacists role -- provide counseling on hazards of refusing vaccines?
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2005; 59: 470-6
"Attenuation" using cowpox
Biological attenuation of microbe
Physical inactivation of microbe
Attenuation via animal passage/cell culture
Physical inactivation of toxins
Purified capsular polysaccharides
21st Century (the "4th century")
Induce cellular immunity via Prime-boost regimen
Reverse genetics/Reverse vaccinology, Reassortant technology