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The Body Systems

Take a trip through the body system stations!

Don Quixote

on 28 January 2015

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Transcript of The Body Systems

The Body Systems
By: Nelson Lugo-Carrasco SC4
The Skeletal System
The Skeletal System is a group of bones that...
1. Support the body and its organs.
2. Protects vital organs.
3. Make blood cells (yes, you read that correctly.)
Organs in this system include:
Bones - the most common known object in this system.
Cartilage - the "cushion" that keeps the bones from grinding. (Arthritis is when this happens).
Ligaments - A ligament connects bone to bone and acts like a shock absorber (both tendons and ligaments are formed from chains of collagen cells).
Tendons - A tendon attaches muscle to bone.
12/19/2013 - 1/20/2014
This system MOSTLY interacts with the...
1. Muscular - Supports the muscles.
2.Circulatory - Bones create the blood.
3.Respiratory - Protects this system from major harm.
4. Nervous - Protects the brain and spine.
Quick Facts:
The Muscular System
The Circulatory System
The Digestive System
The Respiratory System
The Excretory System
The Nervous System
The Immune System
You are born with 350 bones but have 206 when you grow up.
Our bones fuse together as we grow and develop. Most of our bones when we are born are made of cartilage. They later form into strong bones through a process known as ossification.
Your teeth are not bones. Bones regenerate and have bone marrow (thing that makes blood) while teeth does not.
Our skeleton is divided into two parts. The Axial Skeleton and the Appendicular Skeleton. The axial skeleton consists of the skull and the torso. The appendicular skeleton consists of the shoulders, arms, hips, and legs.
All aboard the body sytems train!
Next Stop, Skeletal System!
Next Stop, Muscular System!
The muscular system is a group of muscles that...
1. Helps the body move.
2. Helps the body digest and pump blood through special kinds of muscle that we will talk about next.
Organs on this system include...
Skeletal muscle - the muscles connected to the skeleton through tendons that help the skeleton move making you move.
Smooth muscle - the muscles that help you digest food.
Cardiac Muscle - your heart is the most commonly known cardiac muscle. Cardiac muscle helps your body pump blood and distribute it to other parts of the body.
The deal with voluntary and involuntary muscles is that voluntary muscles (skeletal) are muscles that you can control. Involuntary muscles are muscles that you don't need to think about because the brain is already on it. If you were to think about these muscles all day you would have to say in your head, "move heart, move!" or "move esophagus, move!"
Almost Quick Facts:
The lungs aren't muscles but the muscles that move them are voluntary. They are usually under the control of the respiratory system of the brain stem.
•There are nearly 650 skeletal muscles in the human body.
The busiest muscles in your body are the eye muscles, which approximately move more than 100,000 times in a day
There are muscle cells in the longest body muscle which are more than a foot in length.
About 40% of your body weight is accounted for by muscles.
This system MOSTLY interacts with the...
Next Stop, Circulatory System!
The Circulatory System is a group of many channels, blood cells, and a muscle that...
1. Gives nutrients to cells.
2. Removes waste from cells.
Organs in this system include...
This system MOSTLY interacts with...
Almost Quick Facts...
Next Stop, Digestive System!
Next Stop, Respiratory System!
The Digestive System is a Group of Organs that...
Organs in This System include...
This System MOSTLY Interacts With...
Almost Quick Facts:
Next Stop, Excretory System!
The Respiratory System is a Group of Organs That...
Organs in this System Include...
This System MOSTLY Interacts with...
Almost Quick facts:
Next Stop, Nervous System!
Next Stop, Immune System!
Organs in this System Include...
Organs in this System Include...
Organs in this System Include...
This System MOSTLY Interacts with the...
This System MOSTLY Interacts with the...
This System MOSTLY Interacts with the...
Almost Quick Facts:
Almost Quick Facts:
Almost Quick Facts:
The Excretory's System's Main Functions are...
The Nervous System's Main Function's are...
The Immune System's Main Functions are..
Final Stop...
Skeletal - Moves the skeleton.
Respiratory - Diaphragm helps you breath.
Circulatory - The heart is a muscle.
Digestive - The esophagus is another muscle.
Nervous - The brain tells our muscles what to do.
The Heart - the most commonly mentioned organ in this system that pumps blood..
Blood vessels
Arteries: They carry oxygenated blood. This action is carried through its branches called arterioles.
Veins: They carry deoxygenated blood from various organs of the body to the heart. This action is carried out by its branches called venules.
Capillaries: Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels in the body. They play a major role in micro- circulation. They are thin blood vessels where the exchange of nutrients takes place between the blood and the tissues.
Blood - liquid composed of plasma (55% of blood volume and is made up of 92% of water and 8% proteins, glucose, minerals, hormones, oxygen, and carbon dioxide). Also, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
Nervous - The brain uses up to 1/5 of your body's blood supply.
Muscular - the heart is a cardiac muscle.
Skeletal - The bones make the blood.
Respiratory - blood goes to the lungs to grab oxygen.
Digestive - the blood collects nutrients that the digestive system collects from food.
Immune - a lot of your blood has cells that fight diseases.
Excretory - your blood has a lot of wastes it must get rid of.
One drop of blood has about 5.5 million red blood cells and 12 thousand white blood cells.
The heart beats about 30 million times in 365 days.
Blood runs through the entire body in 20 seconds.
The human heart takes less than one minute to deliver blood to
cell in the body.
Around 15 million blood cells die in the body every second, the same amount is replaced at the same time.
An average heart pumps about 450 gallons of blood every day.
Blood cells die every 4 months.
The heart continues to beat even when it is taken out of the body.
Mouth and Teeth - used for chewing and breaking down food.
Salivary Glands - glands that produce saliva. (saliva breaks down food into smaller pieces).
Pharynx -the passageway for air and food. The pharynx opens into two pathways, one that leads to the esophagus or food passage and the other trachea or air passage
Esophagus - this involuntary smooth muscle pushes food into the stomach.
Stomach - this organ contains amino acids and enzymes that break food down into even smaller pieces.
Gallbladder - the gallbladder stores bile produced by the liver before the stomach releases its food and acids to the small intestine.
Liver - the liver produces bile that protects the small intestines from acids that are still in the stomach's product.
Pancreas - the pancreas produces liquids that protects the STOMACH from its own acids.
Small intestine - the small intestines absorbs nutrients through villi (helps push food around the intestines and is connected to the circulatory system to deliver nutrients).
Large intestine - the large intestine absorbs all the water from the... food? Well, not anymore. All it leaves stool or feces which is the waste.
Rectum - the rectum holds the feces/stool until it is expelled.
Anus - (you may laugh now) the part of the body that releases the feces/stool out of the body.
1. Extract nutrients from food you eat.
Circulatory - this system gives nutrients to the circulatory system for shipping and handling.
Nervous - one specific part of the brain controls the smooth muscle.
Immune - acids in the stomach don't let bacteria pass (we'll talk about that later.
The liver is the only organ that can regenerate itself.
You can have more than 400 types of bacteria in your large intestine.
Our liver does more than 500 different functions.
The salivary glands expulse about 1-3 pints of saliva a day.
Food stays in the stomach for 2-3 hours.
We are born with more than 10,000 taste buds. These are located on the tongue, the throat, and on the roof of the mouth.
The highly coiled small intestines measure 20 feet in length. They also absorb 90% of the food nutrients.
► Every year, the average human being consumes over 500kg of food.
1. Help the body take in oxygen from the air and deliver it into our bloodstream.
2.Take out waste gases like carbon dioxide.
Nose - where the inhaling and exhaling of oxygen/carbon dioxide takes place.
Pharynx - the first part of your throat that allows the passage of air into the lungs.
Epiglottis - a flap-like structure which prevents food from entering the trachea when swallowing.
Larynx - also known as the windpipe, connects the pharynx and trachea and controls the flow of air.
Trachea - extends from the larynx to the bronchi.
Bronchi - a tube that splits into 2 channels into each lung and allows the flow of air into the lungs from the trachea.
Lungs - organs that carry out the work of supplying the body with oxygen and removing carbon dioxide.
Alveoli - sack shaped bodies inside lungs that act like the door between oxygen and the bloodstream.
Diaphragm - formed of skeletal muscles, it squeezes its muscles and leads to expansion of the thoracic cavity (lungs); contraction of diaphragm is important for the expansion of lungs at the time of inhalation.
Muscular - the diaphragm is a skeletal muscle that expands the thoracic cavity and allows the inhalation of lungs.
Circulatory - the respiratory system gives oxygen to the circulatory system for transportation.
Excretory - the lungs are also part of the excretory system and take the role of removing carbon dioxide of the body.
Nervous - the brain controls when to breath and when not to. (Let's not breath in the pool, shall we)?
We exhale about half a liter of water vapor in a whole day.
Breathing is started by the diaphragm, which is a muscle under the lungs. When it contracts, the volume of the rises and the air pressure drops. That is what enables the high pressure air outside, to enter the lungs and makes them expand like balloons.
When air passes through the nose and into the nasal passage called the windpipe, it gets filtered, moistened, and heated.
1. To remove waste liquids.
2.To remove gas waste.
(Note: Does NOT remove solid waste!)
Skin - hold sweat glands.
Sweat Glands - expell liquid waste (sweat).
Lungs - expulse gas wastes like carbon dioxide.
Kidneys - filter blood and take urea out for expelling.
Ureter Tubes - connect your kidneys to your bladder.
Urinary Bladder - hold all liquid waste.
Urethra - the tube through which liquid waste (a.k.a pee) goes through.
Respiratory - the lungs get waste gases out.
Integumentary and Urinary (Unmentioned) - the kidneys, ureter tubes, and uretha belong also to the urinary system while the skin and sweat glands belong to the integumentary system.
1. Control the body's organs.
2.Regulate sleep, hunger, feelings, pain, and our senses.
Brain - probably the most important organ in the human body system. It is the center of all commands. It monitors all the conscious and unconscious processes of the body. The brain controls all the voluntary and involuntary movements in the body. The brain is the organ that helps you do everything (if there was a list, it would be infinite).
Spinal Cord - The spinal cord is a bunch of nerves that run down the back from the brain in the spinal column. Its function is to relay all the impulses, information and sensations from everywhere in the body, internally and externally.
Nerves - The 31 pairs of spinal nerves branch off and reach out to different parts of the body and do different functions.
- the brain controls everything that happens in the human body.
1. To fight against diseases in the human body.
Bone Marrow - produces important immune system cells, red blood cells, and platelets.
Thymus - produce mature T-Cells.
Spleen - acts as a filter of the blood and traps bad, foreign materials like bacteria.
Lymph Nodes -filter the fluid present between the cells of the human body.
Adenoids - stop bacteria and other infecting viruses from reaching other parts of the body.
Tonsils - like the adenoids, they also form the first line of defense against infections. They trap bacteria and viruses from inhaled air. The lymphocytes and antibodies present in them help kill bacteria.
T-Cells - T-cells/lymphocytes intensify immune system responses. They do this by producing special chemicals, which in turn activate other white blood cells, to fight off infections. T-cells are also divided into different types.
Macrophages - pick up and ingest foreign substances and then present them to T-cells and B-cells . This step is a very important step for starting the immune system response.
Natural Killer Cells - act like the T-killer cells and work like effector cells, (directly destroy tumor cells and viral infected cells).
B-Cells - the major function of these cells is antibody production. They produce antibodies in response to many bacteria, viruses, tumor cells, and etc.
Granulocytes - These cells contain 3 types of cells: neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils. These cells are mostly responsible for the removal of parasites and bacteria from the body, by swallowing and destroying them.
Dendritic Cells - mostly found in the immune system REAL organs. They swallow the antigens and present them before the organs for initiation of the immune system.
Platelets - when you wound/injure/cut yourself, platelets line up and make a scab where you wounded/injured/cut youself.
!!!Thank You for Reading!!!
By:Nelson Lugo-Carrasco
They are visible in the mirror.
The tonsils reach maturity by teenage years and after that begin to become less functional.
T-cells are also divided into different types. One division is the T-killer cells that plays the role of killing certain tumor cells and even parasites at times.
The environment plays a good role in affecting our immune system.
'Laughter is the best medicine,' is not just an old saying but laughter does create a immune response that leads to a good ol' healthy body.
The brain is divided into three pieces: the fore brain, mid brain and hind brain.
The spinal cord is about 40 cm in length and as wide as the thumb. (Not so big now, right)?
There are billions of nerve cells in the human body; whether their number is actually more than the number of stars in the Milky Way galaxy is debatable, but their number is definitely more than the number of people on Earth.
The human brain alone consists of about 100 billion neurons on an average. If all these neurons were to be lined up, it would form a 600-mile long line.
The diameter of these neurons ranges between 4 to 100 microns. Though they are the largest cells in the human body, they do not perform the process of mitosis like the other cells.
The nervous system is able to transmit impulses at the speed of 100 meters per second. In fact, the speed of message transmission to the brain can be as high as 180 miles per hour.
In newborns, the brain is known to grow three times within the span of a year. As we grow older, the brain loses a gram every year.
In humans, the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body, while the left side of the brain controls the right side.
Though the brain and spinal cord work together as a unit most of the time, the spinal cord is capable of executing certain actions on its own. The reflex action triggered when we touch a hot object is one of the best examples of the same.
As the nervous system is one of the most important attributes of the human body, damage caused to it can lead to severe consequences at times. More importantly, the central nervous system has a limited ability of repairing itself on its own, which makes the issue all the more serious. It is because of this that the nervous system is housed in the safety of the human skeletal system.
- the immune sytem protects every cell (well...almost every cell), tissue, organ, and organ sytem in the body from dangerous organisms (not just microorganisms).
The human bladder is as big as an average human brain.
Roughly a person urinates 7,850,000,000,000 gallons of fluid in his/her lifetime.
We have two kidneys, in which the left one is always higher than the right one.
The human bladder can hold up to 400 ml of urine.
The skin is also considered a part of the excretory system because by removing sweat it helps eliminate various toxins from the body.
Urine is often diluted and poured in potted plants in gardens because urine contains considerable amounts of urea which serves as a wonderful source of nitrogen for plants.
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