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The Protestant Reformation
Transcript of The Protestant Reformation
Most Europeans are Christians
belonging to the Catholic Church Europe 1500 Pope is Catholic Leader Pope Leo X
(Medici Family) Church gains its wealth from:
Ordinary People Wealth & Power Abused by Some Abuses Simony ~ buying or selling of church offices
Nepotism ~ appointing relatives to positions of power
Pluralism ~ holding two or more positions Sale of Indulgences People could have sins forgiven through good deeds or if they confessed their sins Church SOLD these, people believe they can BUY their way into Heaven Church leaders live lavishly because of wealth Fight off Italian Princes and foreign rulers for control of church Christian Humanists speak out against Church abuses and corruption. Martin Luther
Critical of Church Causes Social Humanism lead people to question the church.
Printing press allows these ideas to spread. Political Monarchs of Europe challenge the Church and the Pope's power Economic European monarchs jealous of Church's wealth. Merchants don't want to pay Church taxes. Luther objected to Johann Tetzel of Wittenberg offering the sale of indulgences to help rebuild St. Peter Cathedral in Rome Luther Writes the 95 Theses 95 Arguments against Indulgences Posts them on the door of the All Saints Church in Wittenberg Luther's ideas spread thanks to the printing press 1521: Luther is Excommunicated by Pope Leo X. Charles V - Holy Roman Emperor declares Luther an outlaw at the Diet of Worms. Wittenberg Worms Switzerland's Reformation John Calvin 1536 - Publishes ideas
Predestination - God determined who would be saved long ago Peace of Augsburg Charles V tries to force German Princes back into the Catholic Church
Peace of Augsburg (1555) allows each prince to choose which religion (Catholic or Lutheran) will be followed in his region The Catholic Reformation (Counter-Reformation) Pope Paul III Catholic church reforms to keep followers Council of Trent (1545)
Works to end corruption and punish
wrongdoings 1600's - Majority of Europeans still Catholic Very Powerful!!! Lutheran Catholic Calvinist