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World War II

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Derek Null

on 14 November 2016

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Transcript of World War II

Adolf Hitler
Post World War I
World War II

Course of the War
End of War
Tides Begin to Turn
Makings of War
World War II
Treaty of Versailles
"The treaty of Versailles will create a just and secure peace."- Woodrow Wilson
Germany force to:
Take blame for the war
Pay war reparations
Reduce military to 100,000 volunteers
Lose 13% of their territory
Post-WWI Germany
Hyperinflation
(price increases are too high)
Germans believed Treaty was unlawful
Nazi Party gains followers
Promise to solve Germany's problems
Nazi Party
Evolved from working class
Blamed:
Capitalism
Ruling Class
Liberalism
Trade Unions
Jews
Create a form of economic
socialism
Economic system where the community controls production & redistribution of goods
Background
Austrian born
Volunteered for WWI
Brave
Received Iron Cross
Temporarily blinded by mustard gas
Germany surrendered while in hospital
Beliefs:
Extreme Nationalism
Aryan Race
Anti-Semitism
Fascism should spread
Rise of Hitler
Told people what they wanted to hear:
Promised to return Germany to power
Germany was sabotaged in WWI
Great Depression was fault of leaders & Jews
We are the master race!

President Hindenberg
name Hitler
Chancellor
(leader of German legislature)
Hindenberg dies & Hitler becomes
Fuhrer
(German for leader)

Begins to make war plans...
Beginning of War
On the Offensive
Meanwhile...
Germans Push On
Potsdam Conference
Nuremberg Trials
Invasion of Poland, 1939
Similar rhetoric as before
USSR & German Non-Aggression Pact
Stalin and Hitler hate each other
Stalin doesn't want war
Hitler doesn't want opposition to conquest of Poland
Conquered in less than a month
Blitzkrieg
"lightning war"
Great Britain, France, Australia, Canada & others declare war on Germany
Nazis invade
Denmark
and
Norway

Move on & invade
Belgium
,
Luxembourg
, & the
Netherlands

Neville Chamberlain resigns
Winston Churchill new British Prime Minister

Japanese kamikaze
pilots attack United States naval base,
Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
December 7th, 1941

Why?

One reason is for
rubber & oil resources
in South Pacific
Attacked U.S. so they wouldn't interfere
Final Solution
- 1941
"Final Solution of Jewish problem"
Full swing--Killed anyone not in master race

Battle of Stalingrad
Germans push into Eastern Europe & the Soviet Union
Bloodiest battle in history of warfare...


Attempted assassination of Hitler fails

Hitler sees the war coming to an end...

Germans begin last major offensive:
Battle of the Bulge
Coined by press -->
describes the Allied Front Line
Caught Allies off guard, but bounced back to win
Result: Significantly depletes German war resources
600 tanks and assault guns
1,600 planes
End of War
Meeting of "Big Three" to
decide how to punish Nazi Germany
President Harry Truman (United States)
FDR died April, 1945 before VE Day
Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union)
Winston Churchill (Great Britain)
Trials for Nazi war crimes

Began: November 19th, 1945

Three categories of crimes defined:
Crimes against peace
War crimes
Crimes against humanity

Panel of four judges ("Big Three" & France)
Nuremberg Trials Activity
As a class, we will pretend to be the panel of judges at Nuremberg

I will show a brief bio of some war criminals and we need to decide if we will:
Acquit
Order X amount of years imprisonment
Order Life Imprisonment
Sentence to death

After we make a decision, I'll reveal the actual decision made at the trials

Germans surrender at Stalingrad, USSR
Largest & bloodiest
battle in history
TURNING POINT
Why? -
Huge loss of life & war-making resources
Casualties:
AXIS - 850,000
USSR -1.2 million
(Dead, injured, missing)

D-Day - June 6th, 1944

Hans Frank
Governor-General of occupied Poland

Instituted a reign of terror against the civilian population

Directly involved in the mass murder of Polish citizens.

Showed remorse &
accepted responsibility

Charged with:
Crimes against peace
War crimes
Crimes against humanity
Hans Fritzsche
Popular radio commentator

Head of the news division of the Nazi Propaganda Ministry

Stand-in for Goebbels
Similar voice

Tried to stop the publication of an anti-Semitic newspaper

Charged with:
Crimes against peace
War crimes
Crimes against humanity
Julius Streicher
Founder and publisher of the anti-semitic Der Stürmer newspaper

He released three anti-Semitic books for children.
Der Giftpilz or "The Poison-Mushroom"
Warned about dangers Jews posed by using the metaphor of an attractive yet deadly mushroom.

Partially responsible for Kristallnacht

Charged with:
Crimes against peace
Crimes against humanity
Military Conscription
Germans take Austria
Wanted to unite all German-speaking people under one flag
Germans want Czechoslovakia now...
Propaganda! --> Hitler said Czechs were abusing Germans
Hitler promised--Last demand for territory
Munich Pact, 1938
British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain makes
appeasement

compromise to avoid conflict/war
Germany gets German-speaking part of Czechoslovakia (
Sudetland
) in exchange for Hitler signing a Peace Treaty
"peace for our time"
On the Offensive
France Taken Next
Bombing Offensive in Britain
Battle of Britain
Britain Holds--Does not fall!
Germans invade Romania, Yugoslavia & Greece...
- major Allied Force
Operation Barbarossa begins...
1941
Operation Typhoon
1941
German advance on Moscow...
German invasion of the Soviet Union
U.S. declares war on Japan
Germany declares war on U.S.
(Axis Powers formed in 1940)
Prompt:

You have seen many photos and videos today that illustrate German and Japanese aggression during World War II.

What thoughts/questions/feelings did you have or experience today? There are no right or wrong answers, I just want to see what these images made you reflect on.


Exit Ticket
Code for...
Hitler violates Non-Aggression pact to control Soviet Lands like he outlined in
Mein Kampf!
Has initial successes taking parts of Soviet controlled Eastern Boarder states
Code For...
"scorched earth" policy as Germans conquer lands
Napoleon & Hitler make same mistakes...
Winter
"Enemy is broken, must push on"
Russians/Soviets burn villages, farms, & fields as they go
Soldiers starve
D- Day
Allied attack to re-take France
Went across the English Channel
Allies confused Nazis with inflatable tanks & planes
Nazis knew an invasion was likely
Fortified beaches with heavy artillery & obstacles
Huge force of over 150,000 Allies attack Germans on coast of Normandy, France
1st
- Paratroopers
2nd
- Aerial Bombings
3rd
- Warship Bombings
4th
- Main Invasion
6,000 ships carrying troops, weapons, & tanks
5th
- Half-Million Allies followed these attacks to push Germans out of France (take back Paris after 4 years)
D-Day Videos
As you watch, be thinking about answers to the following questions:
What was going through the minds of D-Day Soldiers?

Was the slaughter of D-Day necessary?

What is the cost of freedom?

What is a hero?

http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/d-day/videos/d-day-invasion-of-normandy?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false
http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/d-day/videos/d-day-deception?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false
Discuss:
World War II = peak of evil and peak of bravery
Is this same evil in us?
Would we ever do anything this evil?
Is this same bravery in us?
Would we ever do anything so brave?
What is the cost of freedom?

What do we do today to honor those that have fought for our freedom?
Exit-Ticket
Write as much as you think is necessary to appropriately & respectfully answer the two questions...
Allies close in on Germans from East & West
March to Berlin, Germany
SS tried to burn evidence of Concentration Camps
Nazi soldiers began to flee
Deserters were shot or hanged
Hitler commits suicide with wife Eva Braun
Goebbels took over command...
German forces begin to surrender
Unconditional surrender of all German forces to Allies
May 7th, 1945
VE Day (Victory Day in Europe)
May 8th, 1945
Total Deaths in World War II
Total Military Deaths (all nations)
21-25.5 million
Total Civilian Deaths (all nations)
48-58.5 million
Total Deaths (all nations)
70-85 million
4% of world population
What was Decided?
Divide Germany into four occupation zones

Demilitarization of Germany

Agree to criminally charge & try
INDIVIDUAL
Nazi war criminals

Reverse German land conquests to pre-war boundaries
Who's to Blame?
We are diplomats that are going to negotiate terms to end the war.
Who is going to receive the blame for WWII?

How do we punish those at fault?
Remember how we punished those at fault after WWI?

How do we help the people who were taken advantage of or had lands conquered?

Leader of the U-Boat campaigns

Charged with:
Crimes against peace
War crimes
GUILTY!
10 YEARS
GUILTY!
DEATH
NOT GUILTY!
Karl Donitz
GUILTY!
Death
Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Highest ranking SS officer at Nuremberg

Oversaw mass executions

Charged with:
Crimes against peace
War crimes
Crimes against humanity
GUILTY!
DEATH
Albert Speer
Hitler's architect

Chief Minister of Armaments & War Production

Charged with:
Crimes against peace
War crimes
Crimes against humanity

GUILTY!
20 YEARS
Think back at World War II & the Holocaust...


Should individuals be punished for following orders?


Links to History Channel Videos:
"Never give in, never give in, never, never, never, never—in nothing, great or small, large or petty—never give in except to convictions of honor and good sense."
"If you're going through hell, keep going."
"You have enemies? Good. That means you've stood up for something, sometime in your life."
"Success is not final, failure is not fatal: it is the courage to continue that counts."

"Courage is what it takes to stand up and speak. Courage is also what it takes to sit down and listen."
for one day
Killed himself, his family, & his dog
Full transcript