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The Periodic Table

A prezi to communicate the history of the periodic table and to show the wealth of information the periodic table contains

Kim Baker

on 10 February 2016

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Transcript of The Periodic Table

J. W. Dobereiner
The Periodic Table
1865-John Newlands (English)
1869-Dmitri Mendeleev (Russian)
1911-Henry Moseley (English)
1894-John William Strutt
William Ramsay (English)
1829-J.W. Dobereiner (German)
1860-Stanislao Cannizzaro (Italian)
Classified elements in groups of 3--called them "Triads."
The triads had similar chemical and physical properties.
Noticed that the properties of every 8th element were similar when arranged in order of increasing atomic mass
Newlands called this observation the "Law of Octaves"
Unfortunately, he was not taken seriously because he associated his idea with musical concepts.
The "Father of the Periodic Table"
Arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic mass
He noticed repeating patterns in columns when he arranged the elements this way.
He left blank spaces in his periodic table for undiscovered elements
He used these blank spaces to predict the properties of undiscovered elements...most of his predictions were right! (Eka-aluminum, Eka-silicon)
He was the first to use the term "periodicity"
Periodicity-when the same properties of elements are observed at regular intervals
Mendeleev's Periodic Law: The chemical and physical properties of elements are periodic functions of their Atomic Masses. (Later, this Law would be amended.)
Developed a way to measure standard values of atomic masses
This allowed future scientists to organize the elements
Discovered Ar & He
This added Group 18 (Noble Gases) to the Periodic Table
Discovered Atomic Number
Arranged the PT according to increasing atomic #
Modern Periodic Law: The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic number.
In other words: The chemical and physical properties of elements occur at regular intervals when the elements are lined up by atomic number.
II. Names of the Elements
A. Early Elements
given Greek, Latin, Arabic, etc. names that described their properties
Au-Aurum-Latin for golden
Cl-Chloros-Greek for pale-green
Hg-Hydragyrum-Latin for "shiny water"
H-Hydrogenes-Greek for "water-forming"
Elements Discovered Prior to 1700 (The Early Elements)
B. Mythological Figures
Elements Discovered from 1700-1799 (pink)
Elements Discovered From 1800-1899 (yellow)
Elements Discovered From 1900-2005 (green)
Z= 90, Th-Thorium
Thor-Norse god of war
Z = 61, Pm-Promethium
Prometheus-human (Titan) who stole fire from the gods
Z = 27, Co-Cobalt
Kobald-medieval goblin (German)
Z = 23, V-Vanadium
Vanadis-a Scandinavian goddess
Z = 22, Ti-Titanium
The Titans (Greek)
Z = 73, Ta-Tantalum
Tantalus-Greek character tormented by food just beyond his reach in Hades
Z = 41, Nb-Niobium
Niobe (Greek), daughter of Tantalus
Turned into a weeping mountain
Z = 46, Pd-Palladium
Pallas-Greek goddess of wisdom
Z = 95, Am-Americium
Z = 97, Bk-Berkelium
Z = 98, Cf-Californium
Z = 32, Ge-Germanium
Z = 84, Po-Polonium
Z = 21, Sc-Scandium
Z = 87, Fr-Francium
Z = 63, Eu-Europium
Interesting Fact: 4 Elements have been named after the Swedish village of Ytterby: Terbium (65), Erbium (68), Yttrium (39), and Ytterbium (70)
D. People
Cm-Curium-Pierre & Marie Curie
Es-Einsteinium-Albert Einstein
Fm-Fermium-Enrico Fermi
Lr-Lawrencium-Ernest O. Lawrence
Mt-Meitnerium-Lise Meitner
Md-Mendeleevium-Dmitri Mendeleev
Rf-Rutherfordium-Ernest Rutherford
Bh-Bohrium-Niels Bohr
No-Nobelium-Alfred Nobel
C. Places
Sg-Seaborgium-Glenn Seaborg
E. The Newest Elements
105-Dubnium (Db)
106-Seaborgium (Sg)
107-Bohrium (Bh)
109-Meitnerium (Mt)
110-Darmstadtium (Dt)
111-Roentgenium (Rt)
112-Copernicium (Cp)
Also, 113, 115, 117, & 118-officially declared by IUPAC on 12.30.15
104-Rutherfordium (Rf)
108-Hassium (Hs)
III. Features of the Periodic Table
B. Metals, Nonmetals, & Metalloids
You can distinguish among the 3 classes of elements based on an element's position in the PT
The stair-step line is the key!
A. Groups vs. Periods
P e r i o d
S e r i e s
C. Diatomic Elements
Elements that are most stable by having 2 atoms join together to form a molecule
Diatomic elements are elements whose atoms come in PAIRS

NOAH reminds us of elements that come in pairs:
A-All Halogens (except At)
D. Family Names
E. Blocks of Elements (s, p, d, f)
PT Helpful Tips:
Group # tells the # of valence electrons
Period # tells the number of energy levels
(or the valence energy level)
(Main Group Elements Only-
the "tall" families)
IV. Metals Vs. Nonmetals Vs. Metalloids
Lustrous (Shiny)
Good Conductors (Heat & Electricity)
Ductile-able to be drawn into a wire
Malleable-able to be hammered or rolled
Variety of Colors
Poor Conductors
Tend to gain valence electrons in chemical reactions
Tend to lose valence electrons in chemical reactions
Exhibit both metallic and nonmetallic properties
Slight electrical conductivity that varies with temperature
V. Group Characteristics and Uses
Group 1: Alkali Metals
do not occur naturally
reactive metals
stored under kerosene or oil because of reactivity
1 valence electron
low density
low melting point
Li-lubricants; alloys in aircraft
Na-street lamps, salt
K+ and Na+-important for bodily functions
Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals
do not occur naturally
less reactive than alkali metals
2 valence electrons
form +2 ions (lose 2 valence electrons)
Ca-essential to diet; found in bones and teeth
Mg-lightweight; alloys
Be-nuclear weapons and industries
Groups 3-12: Transition Metals
1 or 2 valence electrons
harder/more brittle than metals in Groups 1 & 2
often form colored compounds
do not have uniform chemical properties
tend to have 2 or more oxidation states
Group 13: Boron Family
do not occur naturally in element form
scarce in nature (except Al)
3 valence electrons
soft, have low melting points
chemically reactive at moderate temperatures (except B)
1 metalloid, 4 metals
B-igniter in rockets; boric acid (mild antiseptic); borax
Al-lightweight-used as an alloy (engines, planes, truck bodies); used in electrical wiring
Ga-low melting point; used for "doping" semiconductors; alloys
Group 14: Carbon Family
*Vary greatly in chemical & physical properties--> WHY??
1 nonmetal, 2 metalloids, 2 metals
Occur in both combined and elemental (uncombined) forms
4 valence electrons
form covalent compounds (more on this in Chapter 6 & 7)
C-fuel (coal); lubricant (graphite); archaelogical dating; organic chemistry
Si-sand (SiO2); windows, glass, computer chips
Sn-protective coating on food storage cans; used in alloys (bronze, solder, pewter)
Pb-lead acid storage battery
Group 15: Nitrogen Family
*Vary greatly in chemical & physical properties--> WHY??
2 nonmetals, 2 metalloids, 1 metal
Some abundant elements (N, P), some rare
5 valence electrons
form covalent compounds
often have allotropes
solids at room temperature, except N
P-white & red (allotropes); used in matches, pyrotechnics, smoke bombs; phosphates-cleaning agents
N-ammonia, fertilizer
Group 16: Oxygen (Chalcogen) Family
*Vary greatly in chemical & physical properties--> WHY??
3 nonmetals, 1 metalloid, 1 metal
Occur naturally and in combined states
6 valence electrons
can have allotropes
S-sulfuric acid-battery acid
O-black gunpowder, oxy-acetylene welding, rocket fuel, necessary for respiration
Se-photocells, semi-conductors
Group 17: Halogens
reactive; occur combined in nature
F is the most reactive
7 valence electrons
tend to gain 1 electron in chemical reactions
can be gases (F, Cl), liquids (Br), or solids (I, At)
At is very rare
Cl-water treatment; makes water slightly acidic
F-toothpaste; air conditioning/refrigeration
I-important for thyroid; antibacterial
Group 18: Noble Gases
8 valence electrons (except He)
full outer energy level
unreactive (stable)
Lanthanide Series: Elements 58-71
aka rare earth metals
f-block, period 6
Ce-catalyst in self-cleaning ovens; manufacture of glass; nuclear applications
Eu-used in neutron absorbers; nuclear control applications
Actinide Series: Elements 89-103
f-block, period 7
elements with higher atomic numbers are synthetic (only made in labs)
Am-Americium-241 produces gamma rays-used in smoke detectors
U & Pu-nuclear fuels and explosives; Pu is used in nuclear weapons
only nonmetal on left side of PT
used for rocket fuel & welding
was once used in balloons and airships (blimps)-Hindenburg
Allotropes-different forms of the same element;
example: diamond, graphite, and charcoal are all
forms of the element carbon
VI. Periodic Trends-observable patterns in the pt
A. Atomic Radii-literally, the "size" of atoms; measured in PICOmeters
Left to Right (Period) Trend:
as you move from left to right, the number of protons increases
greater nuclear charge
more "pulling power"
the greater the "pulling power," the more the electron cloud is pulled in
the smaller the size of the atom
Top to Bottom (Family) Trend:
as you move from one element to one below it, an energy level has been added
more energy levels = bigger atom
think of an onion!
the center of the onion is like the nucleus
each layer of an onion is like an energy level
How do you measure the size of an atom?
B. Ionic Radii-the size of ions
First, we must define the term "ion"
an atom with a charge
an atom that has gained/lost electrons
an atom with an unequal number of protons and electrons
There are two kinds of ions, positive and negative
Cation-a positive ion
an atom that has LOST electrons (do you see why?)
Anion-a negative ion
an atom that has GAINED electrons (get it??)
It is important here to remember the difference between metals and nonmetals!
Metals hold onto their electrons __________ and like to LOSE them in chemical reactions--therefore, they form CATIONS
Nonmetals hold onto their electrons _________ and like to GAIN them in chemical reactions--therefore, they form ANIONS
Before we can consider the trend of ionic radii, we must first consider how the size of an ion compares to its "parent atom"
In a CATION, electrons are LOST; the pull of the protons is greater than the resistance of the electrons, resulting in the electron cloud being pulled in toward the nucleus (size decreases)
in most cations, an energy level is lost, making the size decrease even more significant
therefore, cations are always SMALLER than their parent atoms
within a period (same # of energy levels), the higher the positive charge, the smaller the ion
In an ANION, electrons are GAINED;
electrons > protons; the resistance of the electrons is greater than the pull of the protons, resulting in the electron cloud "swelling" (size increases)
anions are always LARGER than their parent atoms
within a period (same # of energy levels), the higher the negative charge, the BIGGER the ion
C. Ionization Energy
Ionization-any process that results in the formation of an ion
Ionization Energy (IE)-the energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an element; measured in kJ/mole
Metals hold their electrons loosely, therefore they have ______ first ionization energies
Nonmetals hold their electrons tightly, therefore they have ______ first ionization energies
The more stable an atom is, the higher its ionization energy will be. (The most stable arrangement of electrons is _____________ ___________________________________)
Ionization energy ___________ across a period (left to right), because of:
increased nuclear charge (greater attraction for the electrons)
decreased atomic radius (valence electrons are closer to the nucleus)
Ionization energy _________ down a family (top to bottom), because of:
increased distance from the nucleus (atomic radii-added energy levels)
Shielding Effect-electrons in between the valence electron(s) and the nucleus block the attraction between the nucleus and valence electrons
A Helpful Analogy:
Successive Ionization Energies
More than one electron can be removed from an atom
The second ionization energy (IE ) will always be greater than the first ionization energy (IE ) because an electron is being removed from a cation (greater attraction for the electrons)
When an electron is removed from a noble gas configuration, there is a noticable spike in the ionization energy (See Figure 3.6, page 147 and Sample Problem F on page 148)
D. Electron Affinity-
The energy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom; literally, "electron love"-how much an atom will "want" to get an additional electron
Most atoms release energy when they get an electron:
A + e- --> A- + energy
this is a favorable energy change
when energy is released, the energy change is represented with negative numbers
Some atoms will only accept an electron by "force"; energy is required to make the atom take an electron:
A + e- + energy --> A-
this energy change results in an unstable ion that will immediately lose the new electron
the quantity of energy absorbed is represented with positive numbers
Left to Right Trend: Become more negative (but there are exceptions)-easier to add an electron

Factor: halogens "want" to receive an additional electron (they become more stable)
Top to Bottom Trend: Become more positive (in general)-more difficult to add an electron

Factor: increased atomic radii (wins over effective nuclear charge)
See Figure 3.7, p. 149 & 3.8, p. 150
E. Electronegativity-measure of an atom's ability to attract a shared pair of electrons in a compound (bond)
Left to Right Trend: Increase

Factor: Metals have little attraction for electrons, Nonmetals have a lot of attraction for electrons
Top to Bottom Trend: Decrease (or stay the same)
See Figure 3.11, p. 153 & 3.12, p. 154
114-Fleurovium (Fl) (2011)
116-Livermorium (Lv) (2011)
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