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Violent Protest - Malcolm X & Black Power
Transcript of Violent Protest - Malcolm X & Black Power
"Non Violence is another word for defenceless"
Malcolm X became popular. He was a powerful speaker. He talked aggressively about white people and attacked the non-violent ideology of MLK.
THE CIVIL RIGHTS CAMPAIGN
BLACK AND WHITE
Malcolm X was in prison between 1946 and 1952. He was introduced to the Nation of Islam by his family in an attempt to save him from a life of crime.
Malcolm X was keen to warn people about the growing problems in the northern cities for black people such as unemployment and drugs.
Like King he was an excellent public speaker, but unlike King he advocated the use of violence where necessary to resist racism.
This direct but compassionate approach made him an important role model for black people in the North.
By the mid _____'s many Black Civil Rights workers were frustrated and impatient with the slow ________ being made through non-violent protests. _______ X and the Nation of Islam had attracted a lot of _______. However it was another leader called Stokely Carmichael who first used the phrase ' Black _____ in 1966.
Stokely Carmichael was a student leader, with widespread support across northern universities and younger black people. He believed that Blacks:
“I’m not going to beg the white man for anything I deserve – I’m going to take it. We want black power.”
Tommy Smith and John Carlos showing their dedication to Black Power at the Mexico Olympics 1968.
Malcolm took the surname X to represent the fact that his name Little was his family’s slave name. His real African name had been lost.
Malcolm X aimed his message at the African Americans who lived in America’s slum cities, and who felt they had
little to gain from the
peaceful campaigns for Civil Rights. He warned of the growing problems of unemployment and drugs in the North.
“When I was born, I was black. When I grow up, I'm black. When I'm ill, When I die, I'm black. But you - When you're born, you're pink. When you grow up, you're white. When you're ill, you're green. When you go out in the sun, you go red. When you're cold, you go blue. When you die, you're purple. And you have the nerve to call me colored?”
THIS APPALLED MANY AMERICANS. THEY WERE BOTH EXPELLED FROM THE U.S OLYMPICS TEAM …
In 1966 a new organisation was started which was called the most violent protest group of the 1960's. It was the Black Panther Party. They saw the need for more direct and aggressive action and were beginning to build support throughout the early 1960s.
Very violent organisation who had a ten point plan.
They wanted better education, better housing and the release of all black people held in prisons.
Immediate end to police brutality
Panthers should carry guns on the street to protect their 'brothers'
Smith later said "If I win, I am American, not a black American. But if I did something bad, then they would say I am a Negro. We are black and we are proud of being black. Black America will understand what we did tonight."
He said: "It is very discouraging to be in a team with white athletes. On the track you are Tommie Smith, the fastest man in the world, but once you are in the dressing rooms you are nothing more than a dirty Negro."
Does anyone know what this is describing?
From 1930 to 1975 the group only accepted black Americans as members. The group believed that white Americans were ‘devils’ and supported the notion of separation of blacks and whites.
This was an all black organisation founded in Detroit in 1930 who believed African Americans had to establish themselves as a SEPARATE Islamic nation WITHIN the USA. RATHER, HE BELIEVED AFRICAN AMERICANS HAD TO RESIST WHITE RACISM BY FORCE.
The Nation of Islam
“The goal of Dr. King is to give Negroes a chance to sit in a segregated restaurant beside the same white folks who have persecuted, beaten and lynched black people for years. Dr. King seems to want black people to forgive the people who have beaten, bought, sold, and lynched our people for four hundred years”.
Malcolm X on Martin Luther King
“I saw all races, all colours, blue eyed blondes to black skinned Africans in true brotherhood…I now know that some whites are truly sincere and are capable of being brotherly towards a black man”
After a visit to Mecca 1964 Malcolm X altered his ideas and became less aggressive towards white people.
Should not wait to be given civil rights by whites.
Should build their own schools and communities.
Should defend themselves using violence if necessary.
Should develop pride in their own separate culture.
The Formation of effective organisations
“the term is unfortunate because it tends to give the impression of black nationalism…………black supremacy would be as evil as white supremacy.”
In some ways Black power echoed the separatist ideas of Garvey earlier in the century. Some critics argue that the Black Power slogan was racist and too simple. All it did was make people angry and violent. Carmichael was a controversial figure and he divided the civil rights movement.
“The white man won’t get off our backs so we intend to knock him off…if it comes to the point that black people must have guns we will have ways and mean to obtain those arms.”
1957 the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Formed and led by MLK and other black clergy.
Began to co-ordinate the work of Civil Rights groups. In various parts of the country and gained a great deal of national attention and support through King’s frequent appearances on TV.
Key aspect of their campaign was the consistent use of non violence.
Combined efforts of these civil rights groups ended discrimination in many public places such as restaurants, hotels and theatres. As the campaigns grew they brought unwelcome publicity to the owners and so restrictions were lifted.
In 1960 the Student Non-Violent Co-ordinating Committee (SNCC) became a central group in taking forward the Civil Rights campaign
Appealed to younger, aspirational black Americans who wanted a better life than their parents had
They organised effective and visible direct action such as sit ins, boycotts, marches and freedom rides. Many of these activities involved white and black students working together