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First Aid


Meghan Anderson

on 8 October 2012

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Transcript of First Aid

First Aid * a noticeable physical injury involving a break in the skin
* usually classified as closed or open *Any time soft tissues are damaged or torn Soft Tissue Injuries STIs Cont. Closed Types Of Open Wounds Wounds the surface of the skin is not broken and bleeding usually occurs beneath the top layer Closed Signals Open Tender, swollen, bruised, or hard areas of the body, such as the abdomen Rapid/weak pulse Skin that feels cold or moist/looks pale or bluish Vomiting or coughing up blood Excessive thirst Becoming confused, faint, drowsy, or unconscious Apply direct pressure
Elevate injured body part
only if it doesn't cause more pain
Apply ice/cold pack
place a gauze pad/towel/cloth between the ice and the person's skin
leave ice on for 20 minutes at the most--if more time is necessary, replace every 20 minutes How To Treat Closed Wounds Severe Closed Wounds Minor Closed Wounds This is if there is
sever pain
the injured body part cannot move
if you think/know the force was enough for damage
If one or more of these is true, seek medical attention The surface of the skin is broken and may bleed Abrasions Skin is scraped/rubbed away and is normally painful Scrapes Road Rash Carpet/Rug Burn Laceration Cuts that bleed freely, and the deeper they are, the more severe they become Avulsion A cut that tears loose/tears off completely a piece of soft tissue or a body part Puncture When an object gets embedded in a part of the body Treatment Of Open Wounds Minor Open Wounds Apply pressure to stop bleeding
Clean and keep clean to prevent infection
Apply healing cream
Put a sterile dressing/bandage/adhesive bandage on if it's still bleeding or you think/know it might get dirty Major Open Wounds Put a clean covering on wound and apply pressure to stop bleeding
Place a bandage on it and make sure it's snug
Call 9-1-1
Wash hands Burns Type of soft tissue injury that can damage a layer(s) of skin, fat, muscle, or bone Burns Caused By Heat

Chemicals Electricity

Radiation First Degree/Superficial Burn a burn in where only the top layer of skin is damaged Second Degree/Partial Thickness Burn a heat burn where the top layers of skin are damaged Red skin
Skin is usually painful
Blisters that could open and run clear liquid
Skin appearing wet
Skin may appear mottled (discolored in patches)
Skin could swell often Signals Include a burn that could destroy all the layers of skin and some/all parts underneath
nerves Third Degree/Full Thickness Signals Include red, dry, and usually painful and swelling skin brown/black skin (charred)while underneath appears white at tissue
can be extremely painful or relatively painless, depending on if the burn destroyed nerve endings)
scarring is highly likely Signals Include Thermal/Heat Burns

remove person from heat source
check for life-threatening conditions
run cold water to cool burn until
the pain is gone
cover loosely with a sterile dressing
minimize shock
reassure injured person How To Treat Burns Chemical Burns

remove contaminated clothing if possible
wash chemical as soon as possible
flush with cool running water for 20 minutes or until EMS arrives
brush dry chemicals off with gloved hands before washing Electrical Burns

make sure the person isn't still in contact with the burn source
turn off power at source
be prepared for a cardiac emergency
call 911/local emergency number call before going to the source in case of high voltage and for emergency personnel to come help with burn Radiation Burns

care for sunburn like any other burn/cool and protect by getting out of sun The Do Nots Of Treating A Burn

don't apply ice/ice water
touch burn with objects other than a clean covering
remove clothing stuck to burn
attempt to clean a severe burn
break blisters
use any ointment on severe burn Eye Injuries How To Treat Severed Body Parts Embedded Objects
Don't try to remove object
wrap a sterile dressing around it and stabilize so it doesn't move
bandage lightly without pressure
seek medical help as soon as possible Foreign Bodies Ex. sand, dirt, other small debris blink several times
gently run water through eye
get medical help if object stays
if the eye has chemicals, run water in it for 10 minutes or until EMS arrives To treat:

*control bleeding
*wrap/bandage wound to keep as much dirt out as possible
*if bleeding's controlled, minimize shock
*wrap severed part in sterile cloth and place in plastic bag on ice Nosebleed sit slightly leaning forward, pinching the nostrils for around 10 minutes then apply ice to the bridge if bleeding doesn't stop, put pressure on upper lip below nose To Treat Fracture Injuries To Muscle, Bone, And Joint complete break/chip/crack in bone that's caused by a blow/fall/twisting and can be life threatening and an open or closed wound Strain Dislocation a bone is in an unnatural position at the joint which causes a bump/ridge/hollow and is more noticeable than a fracture muscles and tendons being stretched that's caused by lifting/overwork and is most common in the neck, thigh, back, shoulder, or lower leg tearing of ligaments at a joint that may swell and involve fractures/dislocations and is most common in the ankle, knee, wrist, or finger joint Sprain Sudden Illnesses Diabetic Emergency Seizure Stroke Poisoning Snake Bites (poisoning) Pit Vipers call 911/local emergency number
wash wound
keep injury still and lower than the heart Elapid Snake Bites call 911/local emergency number
wash wound
apply elastic roller bandage With All Snake Bites, Do Not apply ice
cut wound
apply suction
apply tourniquet
use electric shock Heat Emergencies Heat Cramps painful muscle spasms that usually occur in legs and abdomen and is the least severe of heat emergencies Heat Exhaustion an early indicator that the body's cooling systems become overwhelmed
the body could have:
cool, moist, pale, ashen, flushed skin
headaches, nausea, dizziness, weakness, exhaustion, and heavy sweating Heat Stroke when the body's systems are overwhelmed by heat and stop functioning and is a life-threatening condition
The body could be
red, hot, dry/moist skin
changes in level of consciousness
vomiting Treatment For Heat Emergencies move to a cool place
loosen tight clothing
apply cool, wet towels to skin
fan to cool off
if the person's conscious, give small amounts of cool water to drink
if the person's refusing water, vomits, or starts to lose consciousness
send someone to call 911/local emergency number
place person on his/her side
continue to cool by using ice/cold packs on wrists, ankles, groin, neck, and in armpits
continue to check for signs of life Cold Emergencies Hypothermia when the body's ability to keep warm fails which causes the whole body to cool Signals are:
Shivering, numbness, glassy stare, apathy, weakness, impaired judgment, and loss of consciousness Treatment gently move person to a warm place
monitor airway, breathing, and circulation
give CPR/rescue breaths if needed
remove wet clothing and dry person
warm person with blankets or dry clothes
if person's alert, give him/her nonalcoholic and decaffeinated warm liquids to drink
hot water bottles/chemical hot packs may be used if thickly wrapped
do not attempt to warm the person too quickly freezing of body parts that are exposed to the cold for too long C.E. Cont. Frostbite Signals Include:
lack of feeling in affected area
skin that appears waxy, cold to the touch, or discolored (flushed white, yellow, and/or blue) How To Treat
get person out of the cold
don't attempt to rewarm the body if there's a chance of refreezing or if you're close to a medical facility an ongoing illness where airways constantly swell Asthma Triggers dust/smoke/air pollution
hard exercise
perfume colds
some medications
animals' fur/feathers
temperature extremes/ changes in weather coughing/wheezing
trouble breathing
shortness of breath
rapid, shallow breathing Signals inability to talk without stopping for breath
tightness in chest
feelings of fear/confusion
sweating Treatment help person sit up into a position good for breathing
help him/her take their medicine if they have any
make sure it's in the person's name and for "quick relief"/"acute" attacks and that it's not expired
read and follow all directions on inhaler before you give it to the person
shake inhaler, remove cover, have the person put their lips tightly over mouthpiece, and give medicine quickly
note the time and changes in condition Anaphylaxis a severe allergic reaction that can cause death Signals the area the substance touched gets swollen and turns red
weakness, nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps
trouble breathing, including coughing and wheezing
low blood pressure
shock Treatment check person's ABCs (airway, breathing, circulation)
if the person says their throat is closing or if they have trouble breathing, call 911
help person sit in a comfortable breathing position
monitor ABCs and try to keep the person calm
if needed and if they have it give them an epipen Part of Treatment For A Strain What To Look For changes in consciousness
breathing difficulties
signals of heart attack, stroke, or shock
loss of/blurred vision
persistent abdominal pain/pressure
seizures Call 911 If These Occur:
unconsciousness/altered consciousness
breathing problems/no breathing
vomiting/passing blood
severe external bleeding
severe burns
suspected poisoning
chest pain, discomfort, or pressure that's more than 3/5 minutes, comes and goes, or spreads
suspected or obvious injuries to the head, neck, or spine
painful, swollen, deformed are or open fracture http://editiondigital.net/publication/?i=64159 Care look and care for life threatening conditions
help person to comfortably rest
keep person from getting chilled/overheated
reassure person
watch for changes in consciousness and breathing
ask if he/she's taking medication or has any medical conditions
don't give person anything to eat/drink unless fully conscious, can swallow, and doesn't show signs of stroke
if person's unconcious and vomits, put him/her on side and clear out mouth imbalance of sugar and insulin in body, either with hyperglycemia (too much sugar) or hypoglycemia (not enough sugar) Look For: changes in consciousness level
mood changes
rapid pulse and breathing
looking and feeling sick
dizziness with headaches
confusion Call 911 If: person becomes/is about to be unconscious (care for just like unconscious person)
person is unable to swallow and conscious
does not feel better after five minutes of taking some form of sugar
if you cannot immediately find some form of sugar Care Hyperglycemia
see if he/she has some type of sugar form with them and give it to them
if they don't have anything, find them some juice, soft drink, candy, or anything else that would help
see if they have an insulin shot and see if they need help administering it When the normal functions of the brain are disrupted, decreasing the oxygen levels and causing temporary, involuntary changes of body movement, functions, sensations, awareness, and behavior *Epilepsy - a chronic seizure condition
*Febrile Seizures - seizures caused by rapid increase of temperature Signals Seizures:
a blank stare
a distorted sensation period where the person's unable to respond
convulsions (uncontrolled muscular movement) that lasts several minutes
Febrile Seizures:
sudden rise in body temperature
change in consciousness
head and limbs jerking rhythmically
loss of bladder/bowel control
crying out
becoming rigid
holding breath
upward rolling of eyes Call 911 If: seizure lasts more than 5 minutes
multiple seizures occur without signs of slowing down
person appears to be injured or doesn't regain consciousness
cause of seizure is unknown
person is pregnant, has diabetes, is a child that had febrile seizure brought by a high fever, or is elderly and could have had a stroke
seizure is in water
it's person's first seizure How To Treat: Seizure Cont. Do not try to hold/restrain person or put anything in their mouth
Make sure environment is safe
Care like you would an unconscious person
Reassure/comfort person
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