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hyphae with cross-walls
some saprophytes, some parasites Main Characteristics: Main Characteristics: Mycelium Pilobolus crystallinus
Known as the "hat thrower"
Eaten by animals, passes through the animals' digestive systems and grows in their feces Fungi feed through external digestion meaning they digest/break down food outside their body and then absorb it through the mycelium Fungi play a critical role in nearly every ecosystem
They recycle dead vegetation and make the nutrients available for the next generation of plant life
Certain fungi species are potentially useful in decomposing harmful pollutants when fungi secrete enzymes to break down dead organic matter in recycling
example: mushrooms Saprophytic Parasitic obtain their nutrients from living hosts
example: foot fungi
some terrestrial Description: Habitat: Reproduction: asexual and sexual produce motile spores
cellulose cell walls Main Characteristics: produce nonmotile spores
chitin in cell walls 3 Main Divisions & Major Classes: Mastigomycota Amastigomycota Deuteromycota N/A Zygomycetes
Ascomycetes (sac fungi)
Basidiomycetes (club fungi) N/A Zygomycetes: Description: few single-cell forms
cross-walls lacking in hyphae
some saprophytes Habitat: mainly terrestrial (soil, decaying plant matter) Reproduction: asexual and sexual Ascomycetes: Description: Habitat: Reproduction: terrestrial and aquatic asexual and sexual few single-cell forms
cross-walls in hyphae
many are pathogens Basidiomycetes: Description: Habitat: Reproduction: mainly multicellular
cross-walls in hyphae
many are pathogens mainly terrestrial sexual
asexual spores absent known as imperfect fungi Description: some resemble sac fungi
others resemble club fungi Habitat: mainly terrestrial Reproduction: asexual by spore formation
sexual reproduction unknown Composed of hyphae
Rigid tubes that contain cytoplasm
Interconnected compartments, not individual cells
Many hyphae posses septa which is what separates the hyphae into different compartments; cytoplasm flows through septal pores
Tips are thinner; where growth occurs Cap Composed of gills
Help hold up the cap of the mushroom
Maximize area where spores are produce
Reproductive structures in which spores are produced
Fungal spores are microscopic biological particles that allow fungi to be reproduced Stalk
Gives height to the cap to let spores drop Agaricus augustus
Commonly known as "the prince"
Found in woods and in gardens and by roadside verges Agaricus campestris
Known as the “field mushroom”
Common in fields and grassy areas worldwide
Often found on lawns in suburban areas Absorb nutrients from living or dead organic matter (plant or animal), such as bacteria or animal feces. They absorb simple and easily dissolved nutrients through their cell walls. Ecological Role Some fungi benefit humans:
Yeast from fungi is used to make bread, wine
Penicillium, found in fungi, produce antibiotics
Aspergillus, also found in fungi, is used to flavour soft drinks Fungi and plants
have helped to shape the biosphere as it exists today. •Many mushrooms grow towards light, following the sun just like plants. Unlike plants, scientists do not yet know how mushrooms use sunlight; only that they do.
•Mushrooms are useful not only as food and medicine; some are also being used in bioremediation, to absorb and digest dangerous substances like oil, pesticides and industrial waste, in places where they threaten the environment.
•Fungi are an entirely separate Kingdom of life.
•Fungi have cell walls, similar to plants. However, their cell walls are made of chitin, not cellulose (as plants' are) - and chitin is the same substance as insects use to make their shells.
•Pennicillin, the first antibiotic discovered, is produced by a fungus. Many modern antibiotics are still derived from fungi. Nervous System no nervous system Circulation System no heart
no blood vessels
no circulatory system
structure allows transport without an aid of a circulating fluid Gas Exchange exchanges gas based on the environment around them
Acquiring Gases Underground Parasitic Relationships done through the natural pores in soil
small pockets of air in the soil ; like the air in the atmosphere
air pockets contain everything fungi needs to absorb, especially oxygen
They could also exchange gas through the atmosphere just like plants do. grow in very specific relationships with only life forms
The fungus absorbs nutrients from the tree and passes them onto the parasite growth, taking necessary nutrients along for itself