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ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & TOXICOLOGY

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Fajar Hamid

on 20 November 2014

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Transcript of ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & TOXICOLOGY

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & TOXICOLOGY
The effects of Toxins on The Environment
Heavy Metals
:

A heavy metal is any metalloid or metal of environmental concern.The term originated with reference to the harmful effects of cadmium,mercury and lead all of which aredenser than iron.
Heavy metals are found naturally in the earth, and become concentrated as a result of human caused activities. Common sources are from mining and industrial wastes; vehicle emissions,batteries, fertilisers, paints and treated woods. Lead is the most prevalent heavy metal contaminant.

Diseases caused due to Air Toxins

*Asthma

*COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)

*Lung Cancer

*Cystic Fibrosis
The effects of Toxins on Human Health
TOXICITY
is the ability of a substance to produce an unwanted effect when the chemical has reached a sufficient concentration at a certain site in the body.

Toxic environmental hazards
can be viewed through several different constructs, on a global scale, the traditional environmental hazards such as biologically contaminated water, poor sanitation, indoor smoke from biomass burning, and rampant disease vectors remain the primary source of ill health in children
Conclusion
The WHO said in 2006 that
26% of the total global diseases
are caused by environmental exposures that can easily be averted. This
26% also includes 33% of the total population of children globally
An Introduction to Environmental health
What is Environment?
“The conditions, objects, or circumstances by which one is surrounded”
What is health? “A flourishing condition or well-being, not just the absence of disease”
So what exactly do we mean by ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH?
Environmental health is basically the study of how environment affects human life. It includes many factors like;
Chemical
: Air pollutants, toxins, fertilizers VOC’s
Biological
: Disease causing organisms (bacteria, fungi, viruses) present in food and water
Physical
: It includes, temperature, heat, noise pollution, etc
Socioeconomic
: Access to safe and satisfactory health care

The proper definition of Environmental health according to WHO (World health organization) is

“All the physical, chemical, and biological factors external to a person, and all the related factors impacting behaviors”
What are toxins & toxicology?
Toxins are the poisonous substances mainly protein that produce with in the living organisms or cells. And study of these biological, chemical and physical substances and their harmful effects on human health as well as environment is known as environmental toxicology
Some
Major Environmental Toxins
:

Pesticides

Mould
and other fungal toxins

Heavy metals
( like arsenic,mercury, lead in soil and water)

VOC’s
( Volatile organic compounds)

Dioxins
(Chemical compounds produce in combustion processes)

Asbestos
( insulating material used in floor and ceiling)
Healthy
vs.
Unhealthy Environment
Healthy
Unhealthy
Approachable safe and food and water
• Prevention of illness
• Healthy outdoor environment ( pollution control)
• Healthy and safe work place environment
• Protection against climate changes
• Strong administrative bodies to deal with assessment and control of
occurrence of certain conditions
Poor outdoor air quality
• Unhealthy workplace areas
• Unavailability of safe and healthy food
• Unclean water
• Poor sanitation system
• Increasing GHG emission
• Contamination of soil due to heavy metals and pesticides
Controlling Environmental Toxicity
Toxicological Risk Assessments
Exposure considerations
Education to prevent toxic exposures
Legislation and regulation for prevention of toxic exposure
Awareness through labeling of potentially toxic substances
Benefits of controlling environmental Toxicity
A reduction in the number of exposures and poisonings in the home, outdoor and indoor environments and the workplace.
• Detection and early elimination of unusually hazardous commercial products through regulatory measures.
However, it takes time and effort to carry out safety programs and they may seem too complex and too costly to some decision-makers.


An Unhealthy environment effects human health directly.
Let's see how....
Physiological Classification of Toxins
Irritants
e.g. ammonia, nitrogen dioxide.

Asphyxiants
carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulphide.

Systemic Poisons
e.g. - many organics, chloroform, xylene.

Carcinogens
eg. carbon tetrachloride.

Mutagens


Teratogens
e.g. Thalidomide

Sensitizers-Agents
e.g. cutting oils, isocyanates in polyurethane foam operations and paint spraying operations, some laboratory solvents


Diseases caused due to environmental toxins

Diseases caused due to Water Toxicity
*hepatitis A

*cholera

*diarrhea

*dysentery

*campylobacterioses

*leptospiroses

*malaria
Diseases caused due to soil toxins
Bio accumulation of heavy metals in our bodies which may lead to metal toxicity and even poisoning

The effects of pesticides on SOIL, AIR AND WATER
Full transcript