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Researching, teaching and assessing spoken production and interaction

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Lu Ise

on 14 January 2013

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Transcript of Researching, teaching and assessing spoken production and interaction

Teaching and Assessing Spoken Production and Interaction Structure 1. The nature of speech
2. Teaching spoken
production and interaction
3. Assessing speaking
4. Application and discussion 1. The nature of speech spoken form = primary form of language upon which the written form is essentially dependent:
almost all humans develop speech before writing skills
interpersonal functions of the language
basis for linguistic innovation Spoken production vs. spoken interaction Characteristics interactive process
real-time processing constraints, rapid
bound to place and moment
transient
not editable
linked to the individual who produces it Difficulties overlaps with a lot of other disciplines (e.g. pragmatics)
voice and speech are bound with projection of self into the world
speech is never isolated but connected to grammar and vocabulary as well as culture, social interaction and politeness norms 2. Teaching spoken
production and interaction 3. Assessing speaking Different linguistic areas to test
pronunciation, grammar, range of vocabulary, use of appropriate functional language
adequacy of vocabulary for purpose, intelligibility, fluency, appropriateness of functional language, relevance and adequacy of content Possible barriers for students lack of confidence
challenge to reach a stage at which communication becomes easier and more useful
often not enough preparation time for speaking in class
interest in the topic
personal and cultural differences PPP Presentation
Practice
Production Correcting distinction between accuracy and fluency
different ways of correcting
give correct version and have students repeat it
self- or peer correction
'no' and 'that's wrong' as opposed to 'good idea but not quite' spoken interaction = one of the key aspects of the language learning process
often neglected in many classrooms (instead grammar and vocabulary)
dynamic, meaningful and individual practice should be included in English lessons right from the beginning
emphasis on fostering learner's ability to communicate rather than skills in constructing correct sentences
communication = one of the most important components but also problematic
more difficult to get learners to express themselves freely than to give right answers in controlled practices Encouraging Speaking need for real communication (students talking about their lives, news, expressing their ideas, share personal experiences and opinions, discussing issues, building social relationships)
encouraging environment where students can practice expressing themselves and making themselves understood even if they make mistakes
consider: classroom organization, planning and organizing activities, setting up routines and signals, varying interaction patterns and activities, responsibilities within groups, dealing with noise Communicative and interactive approach pedagogic tasks vs. real-life simulation
tests should be as near as possible to real-life situations using real-life language
this involves two kinds of oral performance:
informing and interacting "With regard indeed to the pronunciation of our tongue, the obstacles are great; and in the present state of things almost insuperable. But all this apparent difficulty arises from our utter neglect of examining and regulating our speech; as nothing has hitherto been done, either by individuals, or societies towards a right method of teaching it." Types of assessment: Rating scales Areas in Spoken Discourse Purpose of talk
chatting or listener-related talk vs. information-related talk
Speaking situation
potential social and contextual factors (situation, participants, ends, norms, genre etc.)
Speaker roles
notions of politeness (quantity, quality, relation, manner) Communicative Functions Six main categories due to the CEF:
giving and asking for factual information
expressing and asking about attitudes
persuasion
socializing
structuring discourse
communication repair Ways
of Assessment single examinee assessment vs. pair work
stand-alone vs. integrated assessment
live or tape-based
open-ended or structured tasks express how well the examinees can speak the language being tested
numbers or verbal categories ('excellent', 'fair')
in addition to the plain score, there is usually a statement describing what each score means

Examples:
The National Certificate Scale
The ACTFL Speaking Scale
The Test of Spoken English scale
The Common European Framework speaking scales References QUESTIONS
?
COMMENTS
?

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION! R. Hughes (2002): Teaching and Researching Speaking. Pearson-Longman. S. Luoma (2004): Assessing Speaking. CUP. N. Underhill (1987): Testing Spoken Language. CUP D. Byrne (1976): Teaching Oral English. Longman. F. Klippel (1984): Keep Talking. CUP. G. P. Ladousse (1983): Speaking Personally. CUP. J. Kurtz (2001): Improvisierendes Sprechenim FSU. Narr. P. Ur (1981): Discussions that Work. CUP. A. Maley / A. Duff (1982): Drama Techniques in Language Learning. CUP. R. Carter / M. McCarthy (1997): Exploring Spoken English. CUP. monologic vs. dialogic speech
focus on dialogic speech and interaction as it corresponds best to natural speaking patterns and to the communicative approach
(Thomas Sheridan: A General Dictionary of the English Language) Tasks and Activities Monologic speech:
oral presentation and narration
practice and free production ...
Dialogic speech / interaction:
dialogues, role-plays, debates, simulations, quizzes, conversation, interviews, mime, drama, speed dating, games ...
4. Application and Discussion Assessment of Speaking -
Comparing Rating Scales Reflection upon encouraging activities
to practice speaking
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