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Ch. 6 The Earth, Sun, and Moon

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Daniel Schiefer

on 13 February 2014

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Transcript of Ch. 6 The Earth, Sun, and Moon

Ch. 6: The Earth, Sun, and Moon
Jupiter is shown here.
Venus is the brighter of the two.
L.1: The Sky From Earth
On a clear night you can see stars,
the moon, planets, meteors, and comets.
The Moon is the brightest object
in the night sky for over half of each month. It is Earth's only natural
satellite
, or body that orbits a planet.
Planets
are objects that orbit
a star, large enough to be rounded by gravity, and have cleared the area of its orbit.
Comets
are a cold mixture of dust
and ice that give up a long trail of light as it approaches the sun.
Meteors
on the other hand are
streaks of light caused by small objects as they burn up in Earth's atmosphere.
Stars
are giant balls of hot gas (plasma),
mainly composed of hydrogen and helium.
Constellations:
Constellations
are patterns or groups of stars that create imaginary pictures.
Different cultures identified different constellations.
Most constellations used today were named by the ancient Greeks.
How Do Objects in the Sky Appear
to Move?
Write down what you think the answer is.
Here is your clue!
The motions of the objects in the sky, the seasons, and the motions of the planets are all caused by the motions of Earth!
Planets are different than stars
and actually move against the background of stars in the night sky.
This is due to the orbits of the planets around the sun on the same "plane."
The area of the sky in which they move is called the "zodiac."
L.2 Earth in Space
Star Charts are useful in
identifying specific
constellations or areas
of the night sky.
In this star chart you are
able to find the constellation
Leo along with a major named star
in the constellation: Regulus.
The constellation of
Aquarius is seen here spanning
a good portion of the sky.
Astronomers can locate other
objects easier if they know
where to look in the night sky.
How Does Earth Move?
Earth moves in space in two major ways.
Rotation
Revolution
Let's first discuss
rotation
. Rotation
is the spinning of Earth on its
axis
. The
axis
is the imaginary line that passes through Earth's center and the North and South Poles.
Rotation is responsible for something
we experience each day. Can you name it?
That's right!
Day
Night
The second way Earth moves is called
revolution
.
Revolution
is the movement of one object around another object. The path an object takes around another object is called its
orbit
.
What object do we revolve
around? What object revolves
around us?
Earth's orbit is not perfect. We move in an elliptical path around the sun.
Look at the distances from the sun.
We are actually closer to the sun in January than in July!
L. 3 Gravity and Motion
What keeps the Earth and the moon in
orbit?
This was the same thing Sir Isaac Newton asked. In the 1600s, Newton realized that there must be a
force
acting between Earth and the moon. A
force is a push or a pull.
Newton hypothesized that the force that pulls an apple to the ground also pulls the moon towards the Earth.
Gravity attracts all objects towards each
other.
In essence,
every object in the universe is attracted to every other object
, this is also called
the law of universal gravitation.
The strength of gravity depends in part on the mass of the object.
Mass is the amount of matter an object has
.
Remember: the larger the mass, the greater the effect of gravity.
Weight
, on the other hand,
is the measure of the force of gravity on an object.
Lesson 4: Phases and Eclipses
What causes the
Moon's Phases?
The different shapes of the moon
you see are called
phases
, and are caused by the motions of the moon around Earth.
Motions of the Moon
Just like the Earth, the moon moves in space.
The moon rotates on its axis and revolves around the Earth.
The same side of the moon always faces Earth.
This makes it seem like the moon never rotates, but its rotation takes as long as one revolution: about 29 days.
As the moon orbits Earth,
the positions of the Earth, Sun and moon also change.
It is this change that causes the phases of the moon
Phases of the Moon
This phase we do not see. Because
of the relative positions of the Sun, Earth, and moon, the New Moon is
not lit by the Sun's rays. This phase
occurs during the day (no moon at all
at night).
Full transcript