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The Ottoman Empire
Transcript of The Ottoman Empire
simple system with two main dimensions: military administration and civil administration
Sultan held highest power
State had control over clergy
each dimension divided into several other levels of power
Economic Characteristics: Trade and Economy
Istanbul was crossroads of trade
Traded with Russia, France, England, and Turkey
Guilds and Janissaries ran the trade and work force
Two treasuries: Government and Sultan
Economy declined because of the Age of Discovery and trade between the New and Old worlds and new routes
Rise to Power
The empire was created over European territory and established Islamic traditions and culture that have lasted to modern-day society.
The definite rise of the Ottoman Empire is not exactly specified, however several theories have mentioned a strong army waging a war over the Christian Byzantine Empire.
Decline of the Empire
The Ottoman Empire
Clemencia Villafuerte, Kailee Kittle, Trevor Morgan, Noah Slade, Weston Howard, and KayLeigh Fitzgerald
Religion & Culture
They had an alphabet and a written language
There was classes such as the military class (askeri) that were exempt from taxes and served as soldiers and bureaucrats and then there was the common people, Christians, Jews, and Muslims, referred to as the raya.
They were a cosmopolitan society
The Sultan was said to be the "protector of Islam"
The country was united through Islamic ideology
United through their Islamic based administrative & organizational structures
Key Figure Heads
Bayezid I the Thunderbolt: conquered large areas of the Balkans, fought Venice, mounted a multi-year blockade of Constantinople, and destroyed crusade directed against him after his invasion of Hungary
Suleyman I (II) The Magnificent: encouraged era of cultural wonder, conquered Belgrade, shattered Hungary at Battle of Mohacs
The people tied to the Ottoman Court were known as the Divans which were considered higher statues
The divan included army and navy officers, central and regional bureaucrats, school teachers, judges, and lawyers
most of the christians and jews were part of the working class
After the golden age of the Ottoman Empire, there was a concoction of issues that led to the eventual end of the Ottoman Empire. There was a lack of power in the sultans. The corruption of the devşirme led to several factions all trying to benefit themselves instead of the empire or the sultan.
Army consisted of salaried kapıkulu regulars, topraklı regional irregulars, short-term levied called miri-askeris, yerli-neferats consisting of the entire Muslim population of a town called up for a local defence, and the gönüllüyan, a general mass of tribal irregulars.
Devşirme - the blood tax or tribute in blood, was chiefly the annual practice by which the Ottoman Empire sent military to take boys, ages 8 to 18, sons of their Christian subjects. They were then converted to Islam with the primary objective of selecting and training the ablest children for the military or civil service of the Empire
Administration was conceived mainly in financial terms, with each clan or family or tribe accepting Ottoman military leadership largely for the financial rewards it could bring. Ottoman chiefs collected the booty in conquered lands and had the right to collect taxes from lands left in their possession after conquests.
The same process that isolated the sultans from their subjects also removed them from the daily administration of government. Formal institutions of administration therefore evolved to take their place, with the rulers delegating more and more of their duties to executive ministers, to whom the Seljuq title vezir was given.
In order to ensure adalet , the Ottomans set up a number of practices and institutions in the central government surrounding the Sultan. The first was the establishment of a bureaucracy drawn from the Sultan's inner circle. This bureaucracy in turn controlled local governments; this would become the model of European absolutism in the seventeenth century.
The Ottoman's were an Islamic based society
The language spoken was Ottoman Turkish