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Early American Period 1640-1720

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Robby O

on 16 September 2013

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Transcript of Early American Period 1640-1720

Early American Period (1640-1720)
Cape Cod
-Cape Cods have steep, two sided roofs called
pitched roofs
(Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
Garrison House
-The second floor hangs over the first to prevent thieves from breaking in (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-Roofs were made of
(Bundles of reeds or straw) (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors)
-Local material was used as a basis for construction. (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors)
-To feel more at home in there new land settlers build permanent homes patterned like those they left behind. (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors)
-Windows were small in order
to reduce heat loss and minimize the use of expensive glass (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
(Thatched roof, Wikipedia.com, 9/4/13)
(Half-Timbered home, Wikipedia.com, 9/4/13)
-The Cape Cod remains a model for many American homes today (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
Gable, SoftPlan.com, 9/4/13)
(Cape Cod, gutenberg.org, 9/4/13)
-Garrison homes were generally
constructed of stone or hewn logs (McGraw, Answers.com).
(Garrison House, claudettemillette.com, 9/5/13)
Dutch Colonial
Swedish Log Cabin
French Colonial
Spanish Stucco/Adobe
-One characteristic of theses homes
are dormers

which are structures projecting
through a steeply sloping roof, set in this
structure are dormer windows, which add light to the home. (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors
-Dutch doors are also common in these
homes, Dutch doors are divided horizontally,
allowing the upper half of the door to be open like a window while the lower half remains shut.
-The log cabins were joined with
notched corners and the joints were filled with clay, bark, or moss. (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors)
-These log cabins were primitive, small
buildings. There length rarely exceeded that
of a single log. (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors)
(Garrison House, Wikimedia.com, 9/5/13)
(Swedish Log Cabin, knowsphotos.com, 9/5/13)
-Porches were added, covered by
a broad roof extending around the
house in order to keep the house cool
and protected from the rain. (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors)
-Posts were put under the house,
elevating the house a full story above
the ground in order to improve air circulation and protect the house from floods. (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors)
(French Colonial, bibvila.com, 9/5/13)
(French Colonial, claytongrayhome.com, 9/5/13)
(Swedish Log Cabin, flickr.com, 9/5/13)
is a plaster
material made with
cement, sand, and lime.
(Sherwood, Homes&Interiors)
is clay that's formed
into sun-dried bricks. Adobe is
the material that is used to
make pueblos (houses) because it was the only material available to
the tribes. (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors)
(Stucco, everystockphoto.com, 9/5/13)
(Stucco, featurepics.com, 9/5/13)
Dormer Window
(Dutch Colonial, tastudio.com, 9/5/13)
(Dutch Doors, http://redesigningsarah.com, 9/5/13)
Dutch Door
(Cape Cod, sfallstars.com, 9/4/13)
Gambrel Roof
18th Century
-The east coast was full of thriving businesses and elegant homes. (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors)
-The frontier was full of people living
in the roughest shelters (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).

-The Georgian style was named after the
kings in England during the time: George 1, George 2 and George 3 (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-This style was constructed of brick and stone, american builders used these materials when available but, the had to adapt the style when
the material were not available (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
Adam Style
-Adam Style pays particular attention
to decorative interior details (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-Adam style made its mark in
America from 1780 to 1820 (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
19th Century
-During the first half of the 19th century,
many writers and artist were inspired by
the European past (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-Many large homes in the South were
built in the Greek Revival style (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).

Greek Revival
-This style flourished from around 1825 to 1860, dissipating around the time of the civil war (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-One of the most well known variations
of this style is the Southern plantation style (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
Gothic Revival

-This style used such fetchers as pointed arches and circular windows with ornamental carved stone (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-In America, many of these homes were built
of wood due to the shortage of stone and stonemasons (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-These homes were often square and
two stories high (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-They featured wide, overhanging hip roofs with decorative brackets, or supports, at the cornices (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
Mansard Victorian
-This style, often referred to as the Second
Empire style, showed the french influence
during the Victorian period (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-The most notable fetcher of this style
is the mansard roof which is a roof that has
two slopes on all side, with the lower slope
being steep and the upper slope being almost
flat (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
(Georgian, homesweethome.com, 9/10/13)
(Georgian, Faculty.ycp.edu, 9/10/13)
(Adam Style, marblestudio.com, 9/10/13)
(Adam Style, Architecture.about.com, 9/10/13)
(Greek Revival, blogspot.com, 9/12/13)
(Greek Revival, blogspot.com, 9/12/13)
(Gothic Revival, homeplans.com, 9/10/13)
(Gothic Revival, Architecture.about.com, 9/12/13)
(Italianate Style, Historicalbuildingsct.com, 9/10/13)
(Italianate Style, Dreamghousesource.com, 9/10/13)
(Mansard Style, Centersandsquares.com, 9/10/13)
(Mansard Style, mhl.org, 9/10/13)

-Traditional Styles from various cultures
and countries were adapted to new ways
of living during this time (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).

-Two architectural movements took place
during this time, one based on traditional styles,
the other based on new ideas called modern (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-This Craftsman style originated in southern California,
developing at the same time as the Prairie style and sharing many of its characteristics
(Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-The Craftsman style is distinguished by the
development of the bungalow which is a
small, one story house with an overhanging
roof and a covered porch (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-In the early 20th century Frank Lloyd Wright, an American architect, began designing Prairie Style homes. Most homes in this style were built until about 1920 (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-These homes are characterized by their emphasis on horizontal lines, low-pitched roofs with overhanging eaves, wide porches, and such details as rows of leaded glass and windows (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-After WW1, European architects began experimenting with new materials and new building methods. The product of this was the International style (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-An average International style house combines simple geometric shapes to create an asymmetrical
design that resembles a piece of sculpture (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
(Craftsman Style, City-data.com, 9/11/13)
(Bungalow Style, Blogspot.com, 9/11/13)
(Frank Lloyd Wright, wikimedia.org, 9/11/13)
(International Style, wright-house.com, 9/11/13)
(Prairie Style, c21selectgroup.com, 9/11/13)
(International Style, wikipedia.org, 9/11/13)
-The Saltbox began as a two-story, pitched-roof house although, the need for extra space prompted some owners to built an extra set of rooms along the back of the house on the first floor, then they brought the roof line down in order to cover the addition (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-This style of home is refereed to as a Saltbox
because the long slope of the roof is similar
to the sloping cover on wooden saltboxes in colonial kitchens (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
(Saltbox Style, claudettemillette.com, 9/11/13)
(Saltbox, historichouseblog.com, 9/12/13)
-Most German settlers who came to America in the late 17th century settled on southeastern Pennsylvania. These Germans built large durable homes from wood and quarry stone (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-The typically German house provided entry into the first floor kitchen. The fireplace
was situated in the center of the first floor. On the opposite side of the fireplace was a large family room for entertaining (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
(German, .frederickcountylandmarksfoundation.org, 9/12/13)
(German, ornamental.typepad.com, 9/12/13)
Early Classical
-Between 1770 and 1830, many architects looked toward ancient Rome to find new way of expressing American independence. They were led by Tomas Jefferson, who was an architect as well as President, statesman, and inventor (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-The portico is one feature that made this style unique. The portico is a tall, open porch supported by columns, over the front entrance. The portico is topped by a triangular pediment (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
(Early Classical, designevolutions.com, 9/12/13)
(Early Classical, oldhouses.com, 9/12/13)
Split Level
-A ranch house is a long, low, one story house. It resembles the rambling one-story houses built by the early settlers of the west (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
Queen Anne with Turret
-The split-level home became popular
during the 1950s as a modification of
the ranch-style home (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).

A Frame
Geodesic Dome
-In the 1870s and 1880s, the most fanciful of the Victorian styles, the Queen Anne style, became popular (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-Details of this style include, an irregular steep roof with ornamental gables, overlapping decorative wood singles for siding, and a wraparound porch with railings and columns (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-This style features a low pitch gable or hip roof. Most have decorative shutters and picture windows (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-A split level house has at least two levels of living space, connected by short
flights of stairs. Some split-levels have a basement, which adds another level (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-Innovative Style is a fairly new style
that often breaks the rules of accepted housing designs that came before them (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).

Post War Modern

-The styles after WW1 ignored historical styles in favor of new, innovative ones (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-The Postwar Modern Styles included ranch, contemporary, split-level, and shed (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
(Queen Anne with Turret, architecturestyles.org, 9/13/13)
(Queen Anne with Turret, blogspot.com, 9/13/13)
-One unique fetcher of this style is the extremely varied and, unconventional roof style (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-In this style the gabled roof continues to ground level on two sides. This eliminates the need for separate side wall (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-The A-frame typically is used for vacation homes. Ease in building and the broad range of building materials that can be used during construction are the main advantages of
the A-frame (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-The Geodesic Dome is an efficient home built of triangular frames that are joined to form self-supporting roof and walls (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-The frame is medal or plastic covered by either a
flexible skin or rigid panels. As a result of the dome being self-supporting, interior walls are not necessary (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-The Solar Style is a house whose exterior consists of solar panels which help power the home (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-The Earth-Sheltered Style is a home built into the side of a hill with its southern wall exposed and, large windows for sunlight (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-Innovative Style is a fairly new style that includes varied roofing styles and an experimental design (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
Native American Homes

Underground Sod House
-In general several closely related families stayed in the same house (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-Many Indians had temporary homes in order to follow animals in there movements in order to hunt them (Sherwood, Homes&Interiors).
-Strips of bark were then woven horizontally through the lines of poles to form weatherproof walls, with doors at both ends of the house covered with an animal hide to keep warm (Wikipedia)
-Longhouses featured fireplaces on the inside. On top of the longhouses they made holes to keep the smoke out so they didn't lose oxygen (Wikipedia)
-The curved surfaces of the domed shaped Wigwam make it an ideal shelter for all kinds of conditions (Wikipedia.com).
-These structures are constructed from a frame made of arched, wooden poles which are covered with some roofing material (Wikipedia.com).
-Teepees were conical tents, traditionally made of animal skins, and wooden poles (Wikipedia.com)
-Pueblos were adobe homes which were multistory and constructed in complexes (Bigorin.org).
-Each adobe unit was home to one family and, ladders were used to reach the second floor apartments (Bigorin.org)
-These style of home was typically used by the
nomadic tribes of the great plains in order to hunt wildlife specifically, buffalo (Wikipedia.com)
(Teepee, blogspot.com, 9/15/13)
-These homes were all semi-subterranean with basement like living spaces dug from the earth (native-language.org).
-There was typically a domed mound built with a wooden frame covered with earth or reeds (native-language.org).
(Teepee, people.smu.ed, 9/15/13
(wigwan, livinghistorged.org, 9/15/13)
(wigwam, potawatomiheritage.org, 9/15/13)
(longhouse, wikispaces.com, 9/15/13)
(longhouse, duckster.com, 9/15/13
(Pueblo, Wikipedia.org, 9/15/13)
(Pueblo, Wikipedia.org, 9/15/13)
(Underground sod house, Wikipedia.org, 9/15/13)
(Underground sod house, greenbuildingpress.co, 9/15/13)
(Split level, wikipedia.org, 9/15/13)
(Split Level ,architectureabout.com, 9/15/13)
(Geodesic Dome, Domehome.com, 9/15/13)
(Solar Style, northjersey.com, 9/15.13)
(Earth-Sheltered Style, Wikipedia.org, 9/15.13)
( Innovative Style, trender.com, 9/15.13)
(A Frame, Tumblr.com, 9/15/13)
( Ranch, Virginia.ed, 9/15/13)
( Ranch, Virginia.ed, 9/15/13)
(Geodesic Dome, Domehome.com, 9/15/13)
(A Frame, Tumblr.com, 9/15/13)
Flat roof
Saltbox Roof
Wrap around porch
Mansard roof
solar panels
Fanlight window
Arch Window
palladian window
side lights
Transom window
Cornice brackets
Eave Overhang
Balustrade Railing
Gingerbread Trim
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