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Transcript of ESL
English as a Second Language
How can you cater for ESL students in a mainstream literacy classroom?
Specific strategies for dealing with these unique needs....
What are some common issues for ESL students?
How do the personal backgrounds of ESL learners impact on literacy learning?
What are the most effective practices in terms of ESL learning?
What are the unique needs?
What is the most effective way to implement an ESL program?
Penny Wilson, Eva Martin, Ben Sheahan, Irene Frederic
Department of Education, Employment and Training 2000, 'No English 2: Questions and Answers', Communication Division, Department of Education, Melbourne Vic.
Duff, PA 2001, 'Language, Literacy, Content, and (Pop) Culture- Challenges for ESL Students in Mainstream Courses', Canadian Modern Language Review, vol. 58, no. 1, p. 103-132.
Adesope, O, Lavin, T, Thompson, T, & Ungerleider, C 2011, 'Pedagogical strategies for teaching literacy to ESL immigrant students- a meta-analysis', The British Journal Of Educational Psychology, vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 629-653.
Aizen, T, Darras, I, Farrell, M, Germanchis, H, Guzman, R, Kirpichnikov, V, Mancuso, T, Pledge, S, Seegers, C 1992, 'Springvale English Language Centre Syllabus', Springvale Primary School, Victoria.
Brown, J, Miller, J & Mitchell, J 2006, 'Interrupted schooling and the acquisition of literacy- Experiences of Sudanese refugees in Victorian secondary schools', Australian Journal Of Language & Literacy, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 150-162.
Watts-Taffe, S and Truscott, D. M 2000, ‘Focus on Research: Using What We Know about Language and Literacy Development for ESL Students in the Mainstream Classroom’, Language Arts, National Council of Teachers of English, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 258-265.
Fishkin, O 2010, ‘Effective Primary Literacy Strategies for English Language Learners’, Illinois Reading Council Journal, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 14-20.
Hutchinson, M & X, Hadjioannou 2011, 'Better serving the needs of limited English proficient (LEP) students in the mainstream classroom: examining the impact of an inquirybased hybrid professional development program', Teachers and Teaching; Theory and Practice, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 91-113.
The Asian Food Festival
Royal Melbourne Zoo
1. The learning environment is supportive and productive
2. The learning environment promotes independence, interdependence and self-motivation
3. Students’ needs, backgrounds, perspectives and interests are reflected in the learning program
4. Students are challenged and supported to develop deep levels of thinking and application
5. Assessment practices are an integral part of teaching and learning
6. Learning connects strongly with communities and practice beyond the classroom
Principals of Learning and Teaching
'Literacy is constructed by, through and around the social practices' of social environments, including school
(Anstey 2002, p. 47)
(Comber & Kamler 2010, p. 78)
Hands-on Learning activities
Opportunities to use new skills working cooperatively in groups or pairs
“At times, ELLs feel self-conscious when sharing due to lack of language. Working with a partner creates a stress-free environment, which leads to students being willing to take more risks” (Fishkin 2010, pp.18)
"Students working in small groups is less threatening" (Comber and Kamler 2010, p. 37).
Walker, C and Exley, B 2010, 'Nurturing Needs: Literacy Achievement for Refugee students', NEWSLETTER OF THE AUSTRALIAN LITERACY EDUCATORS’ ASSOCIATION, Education Queensland.
Department of Education and Early Childhood 2009, 'Principals of Learning and Teaching', <http://www.education.vic.gov.au/studentlearning/teachingprinciples/principles/default.htm>
•Think-pair-share•Buddy reading •Conversation role-play
Acculturation is more important than assilimilation
(Watts-Taffe & Truscott 2000)
"Using the social elements of learning, in the form of activities designed for small groups or pairs, proves to be advantageous and is a natural part of the scaffolding process".
(Watts-Taffe & Truscott 2000)
Student-to-student learning interactions
Walker and Exley (2010) in 'Nurturing Needs: Literacy Achievement for Refugee students' describe how community involvement achieved success and high quality outcomes for all students
YSS avoided isolating refugee students from mainstream -
better outcomes achieved for everyone through integration
Stewman (2011) states families have major influence over student success
Strengthened relationships of stakeholders
Family Literacy Activities
Parents as learners
Stewman, R, R 2011, 'Engaging ESL Parents Through Literacy', Principal, National Association of Elementary School,Principals, November/December issue, p. 50-51.
Department for Education & Child Development (South Australian Government)
•Use pair and group work and peer/cross age tutoring to maximise language interaction in a low stress environment and to encourage risk taking
Strategies for developing language skills in social contexts
• Use clear, common and consistent instructions and repeat or rephrase if necessary
•Don’t use too much jargon or idioms
•opinion gap activities where learners share and discuss their own personal feelings, attitudes or preferences about ideas or topics
• mime and role-play
•Games, group work, songs, drama, chants.
(Watts-Taffe & Wesctott
-Shrek -The Lion King
Work with partner
Use deconstructed sentences
Put them back together & describe the features
School in Queensland
Strategies for social development
Encourage all other students to be helpful & friendly -
how would they feel?
Beware of 'mother hen syndrome'!
Be clear about roles as helpers
DEET 2000, 'No English 2'
Give your new arrival a special role
Opportunities to incorporate a special interest e.g. music or sport
Explain non-verbal communication should not replace talking, it supports it.
Behavioural issues -
possible past traumatic experiences
Professional assistance may be required.
e.g. Victorian Foundation for the Survivors of Torture Inc.
Allow time for a change of activity -
mental effort used can be exhausting
Sudanese refugees: Lack of confidence
Mandarin speakers: Plurals and tense
Indian: 'Hinglish’, rote learning
Phased ESL program: move from 'one-shot’,
Bilingual vs. English immersion methods
Assessment: Formative, ‘over-assessing’
Task design: Based around abilities
Specific strategies: broad approaches
CULTURE, ETHNICITY, AND RELIGION
- ESL students are often from a culture which has different values to those that we perceive as ‘normal’
- Differing cultural backgrounds may cause issues relating to:
- Dress code
- Religious events
- Female or male teachers
- Responsibility for family
- Previous classroom experience.
- More traumatic events such as a death in the family,
- Drug/alcohol/sexual abuse
-Time in a refugee camp or migrating from a country at war.
PERSONAL, FAMILY CIRCUMSTANCES
How do the personal backgrounds of ESL students impact on literacy learning within the classroom?
‘ESL students offer a rich resource of diversity that can enhance classroom dynamics. At the same time they present a special challenge to classroom teachers..’ (Drucker, 2003)
experiencing one's own beliefs and behaviours as just an organisation of reality among many viable possibilities.
: referring to the experience of one's own culture as central to 'reality'.
AS TEACHERS, HOW CAN WE ACCOMMODATE THE DIFFERENT PERSONAL BACKGROUNDS OF ESL LEARNERS?
If any of these are causing the learner a problem then they are likely to interfere with their learning.
These learners need to be treated with understanding.
Often the most important thing that a teacher can do is to provide a stable positive learning environment for the learner to come to terms with the events in their past.
Drucker, M 2003, ‘What reading teachers should know about ESL learners’, The Reading Teacher, vol. 57, no. 1, p. 22-29.
Bennet, M 2004, 'Toward multiculturalism', A Reader in Mulcticultural Education, 2nd ed., pp. 62-67.
Work is culturally biased against ESL students
Students are bored or unmotivated
Students don’t understand the activity
Students become overly dependent on the teacher
Students persistently use first-language
Students plagiarise others work
Focusing on students strengths
Constructing and sharing a classroom culture
Using a thematic focus
Promoting talk and interaction
Be aware when there has been a communication break down
Encourage students in building their fluency and vocabulary to form their own voice
engaging in a new,
keeping up with academic
studies, working around an
The life of an ECL student
Cho E. H., Larke, Patricia J. (2010), “Repair Strategies Usage of Primary Elementary ESL Students: Implications for ESL Teachers”, TESL-EJ, Vol. 14 Issue 3, p1-18
Ernst, G. (1994) “Beyond language: The many dimensions of an ESL program.”, Anthropology & Education Quarterly, Vol. 25 Issue 3, p317
Lankamp R. (2009) “ESL Student Plagiarism: Ignorance of the Rules or Authorial Identity Problem?”, Journal of Education and Human Development, Volume 3, Issue 1, p. 1 - 8
Speaking and listening:
Visual cues, altering printed material,
Cooperative reading; sequencing; comic; red and white thinking hats; word/picture matching; rhymes, song, dance, drama
Writing: 100 most common words, free- writing
Games: ‘Information gap’
Flexible mode and delivery
Margery Hertzberg: ‘Teaching ELL in mainstream classes’
Pauline Gibbons: ‘The Teaching and Learning Cycle’