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E3: Romanticism

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john meehan

on 10 February 2014

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Transcript of E3: Romanticism

Romanticism
A movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, and became hugely popular in America from 1800-1860.

It emphasized inspiration, subjectivity, and the primacy of the individual.
INSPIRATION
SUBJECTIVITY
THE PRIMACY OF
THE INDIVIDUAL
Romantic writers found their
in art, nature, dreams, and the emotional side of human relationships.
By focusing on the
of each person's experience, each author can emphasize personal
FEELINGS
instead of cold hard
FACTS
feelings > facts
By focusing on the
each author is free to depict the world
USING THEIR OWN IMAGINATION.
"We will walk on our own feet;

we will work with our own hands;

we will speak our own minds."
American Romanticism (162-164)
The Romantic Sensibility:
Celebrating Imagination (164-165)
Romantic Escapism:
From Dull Realities to Higher Truths (166-167)
The American Novel and the Wilderness Experience (167-169)
American Romantic Poetry:
Read at Every Fireside (170)
The Transcendentalists:
True Reality is Spiritual (170-172)
The Dark Romantics (172-173)
Homework:
Finish reading and taking notes on p. 162-173.
There will be a notebook check in tomorrow's class.
American Romanticism 1800-1860
The tide rises, the tide falls,
The twilight darkens, the curlew calls;
Along the sea-sands damp and brown
The traveller hastens toward the town,
And the tide rises, the tide falls.
Darkness settles on roofs and walls,
But the sea, the sea in the darkness calls;
The little waves, with their soft, white hands,
Efface the footprints in the sands,
And the tide rises, the tide falls.
The morning breaks; the steeds in their stalls
Stamp and neigh, as the hostler calls;
The day returns, but nevermore
Returns the traveller to the shore,
And the tide rises, the tide falls.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
The Tide Rises, the Tide Falls
In the long, sleepless watches of the night,
A gentle face—the face of one long dead—
Looks at me from the wall, where round its head
The night lamp casts a halo of pale light.
Here in this room she died; and soul more white
Never through martyrdom of fire was led
To its repose; nor can in books be read
The legend of a life more benedight.°
There is a mountain in the distant West
That, sun-defying, in its deep ravines
Displays a cross of snow upon its side.
Such is the cross I wear upon my breast
These eighteen years, through all the changing scenes
And seasons, changeless since the day she died.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
The Cross of Snow
Unit Introduction
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
1864 - "I Heard the Bells on Christmas Day"
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
"Paul Revere's Ride" (1860)
"Fireside poets"
Five Massachusetts poets famous for their regular verse, rhyme, and meter which made their poems easy to memorize and recite around the fireside.
I heard the bells on Christmas Day
Their old, familiar carols play,
And wild and sweet
The words repeat
Of peace on earth, good-will to men!
Then pealed the bells more loud and deep:
"God is not dead; nor doth he sleep!
The Wrong shall fail,
The Right prevail,
With peace on earth, good-will to men!"
I Heard the Bells on Christmas Day
by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1864)
Till, ringing, singing on its way,
The world revolved from night to day,
A voice, a chime,
A chant sublime
Of peace on earth, good-will to men!
Then from each black, accursed mouth
The cannon thundered in the South,
And with the sound
The carols drowned
Of peace on earth, good-will to men!
And thought how, as the day had come,
The belfries of all Christendom
Had rolled along
The unbroken song
Of peace on earth, good-will to men!
It was as if an earthquake rent
The hearth-stones of a continent,
And made forlorn
The households born
Of peace on earth, good-will to men!
And in despair I bowed my head;
"There is no peace on earth," I said:
"For hate is strong,
And mocks the song
Of peace on earth, good-will to men!"
American Romanticism: 1800-1860
The Romantic Hero
Dark Romanticism
Transcendentalism
Walt Whitman
p. 196
p. 198
O CAPTAIN! my Captain, our fearful trip is done,
The ship has weather'd every rack, the prize we sought is won,
The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting,
While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring;
But O heart! heart! heart!
O the bleeding drops of red,
Where on the deck my Captain lies,
Fallen cold and dead.

O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells;
Rise up--for you the flag is flung--for you the bugle trills,
For you bouquets and ribbon'd wreaths--for you the shores a-crowding,
For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning;
Here Captain! dear father!
The arm beneath your head!
It is some dream that on the deck,
You've fallen cold and dead.

My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still,
My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will,
The ship is anchor'd safe and sound, its voyage closed and done,
From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with object won;
Exult O shores and ring O bells!
But I with mournful tread,
Walk the deck my Captain lies,
Fallen Cold and Dead.
O Captain! My Captain! (1865)
1819-1892
Romanticism
Transcendentalism
Realism
WILD, wild the storm, and the sea high running,
Steady the roar of the gale, with incessant undertone muttering,
Shouts of demoniac laughter fitfully piercing and pealing,
Waves, air, midnight, their savagest trinity lashing,
Out in the shadows there milk-white combs careering,
On beachy slush and sand spirts of snow fierce slanting,
Where through the murk the easterly death-wind breasting,
Through cutting swirl and spray watchful and firm advancing,
(That in the distance! is that a wreck? is the red signal flaring?)
Slush and sand of the beach tireless till daylight wending,
Steadily, slowly, through hoarse roar never remitting,
Along the midnight edge by those milk-white combs careering,
A group of dim, weird forms, struggling, the night confronting,
That savage trinity warily watching.
Patrolling Barnegat
By Walt Whitman
I HEAR America singing, the varied carols I hear;
Those of mechanics—each one singing his, as it should be, blithe and strong;
The carpenter singing his, as he measures his plank or beam,
The mason singing his, as he makes ready for work, or leaves off work;
The boatman singing what belongs to him in his boat—the deckhand singing on the steamboat deck; 5
The shoemaker singing as he sits on his bench—the hatter singing as he stands;
The wood-cutter’s song—the ploughboy’s, on his way in the morning, or at the noon intermission, or at sundown;
The delicious singing of the mother—or of the young wife at work—or of the girl sewing or washing—Each singing what belongs to her, and to none else;
The day what belongs to the day—At night, the party of young fellows, robust, friendly,
Singing, with open mouths, their strong melodious songs.
I Hear America Singing
the literary archetype of a character that rejects established norms and conventions, has been rejected by society, and has the self as the center of his or her own existence.
ROMANTIC HERO
are "outsiders" to society
are "rough around the edges"
play by their own rules
strengths mirror society's weaknesses
are in touch with nature and have "street smarts"
introspection
wanderlust
melancholy
misanthropy
alienation
isolation
regret
self-criticism
Romantic Heroes
typical behaviors include:
romantic heroes reject:
love
society
order
rules
conformity
formal education
Quick-Write:
The character of "Quint" from the 1975 movie "Jaws" is a classic example of a ROMANTIC HERO.
What personality traits do you notice about this character based on his monologue in this scene?
"The Last of the Mohicans"
by James Fenimore Cooper
"Natty Bumppo"
Quick-Write:
The character of "Indiana Jones" is another classic example of a ROMANTIC HERO.
What personality traits do you notice about this character based on his behavior in this scene?
archetype
what is an
?
John Chapman a.k.a.
(Johnny Appleseed)
1774-1845
John Henry
WHAT MAKES A ROMANTIC HERO?
HEAR the sledges with the bells,
Silver bells!
What a world of merriment their melody foretells!
How they tinkle, tinkle, tinkle,
In the icy air of night! 5
While the stars, that oversprinkle
All the heavens, seem to twinkle
With a crystalline delight;
Keeping time, time, time,
In a sort of Runic rhyme, 10
To the tintinnabulation that so musically wells
From the bells, bells, bells, bells,
Bells, bells, bells—
From the jingling and the tinkling of the bells.
Hear the mellow wedding bells, 15
Golden bells!
What a world of happiness their harmony foretells!
Through the balmy air of night
How they ring out their delight!
From the molten-golden notes, 20
And all in tune,
What a liquid ditty floats
To the turtle-dove that listens, while she gloats
On the moon!
Oh, from out the sounding cells, 25
What a gush of euphony voluminously wells!
How it swells!
How it dwells
On the Future! how it tells
Of the rapture that impels 30
To the swinging and the ringing
Of the bells, bells, bells,
Of the bells, bells, bells, bells,
Bells, bells, bells—
To the rhyming and the chiming of the bells! 35
Hear the loud alarum bells,
Brazen bells!
What a tale of terror, now, their turbulency tells!
In the startled ear of night
How they scream out their affright! 40
Too much horrified to speak,
They can only shriek, shriek,
Out of tune,
In a clamorous appealing to the mercy of the fire,
In a mad expostulation with the deaf and frantic fire, 45
Leaping higher, higher, higher,
With a desperate desire,
And a resolute endeavor
Now—now to sit or never,
By the side of the pale-faced moon. 50
Oh, the bells, bells, bells!
What a tale their terror tells
Of Despair!




Hear the tolling of the bells, 70
Iron bells!
What a world of solemn thought their monody compels!
In the silence of the night
How we shiver with affright
At the melancholy menace of their tone! 75
For every sound that floats
From the rust within their throats
Is a groan.
And the people—ah, the people,
They that dwell up in the steeple, 80
All alone,
And who tolling, tolling, tolling,
In that muffled monotone,
Feel a glory in so rolling
On the human heart a stone— 85
They are neither man nor woman,
They are neither brute nor human,
They are Ghouls:
And their king it is who tolls;
And he rolls, rolls, rolls, 90
Rolls
A pæan from the bells;
And his merry bosom swells
With the pæan of the bells,
And he dances, and he yells: 95
Keeping time, time, time,
In a sort of Runic rhyme,
To the pæan of the bells,
Of the bells:
Keeping time, time, time, 100
In a sort of Runic rhyme,
To the throbbing of the bells,
Of the bells, bells, bells—
To the sobbing of the bells;
Keeping time, time, time, 105
As he knells, knells, knells,
In a happy Runic rhyme,
To the rolling of the bells,
Of the bells, bells, bells:
To the tolling of the bells, 110
Of the bells, bells, bells, bells,
Bells, bells, bells—
To the moaning and the groaning of the bells.
How they clang, and clash, and roar!
What a horror they outpour 55
On the bosom of the palpitating air!
Yet the ear it fully knows,
By the twanging
And the clanging,
How the danger ebbs and flows; 60
Yet the ear distinctly tells,
In the jangling
And the wrangling,
How the danger sinks and swells,—
By the sinking or the swelling in the anger of the bells, 65
Of the bells,
Of the bells, bells, bells, bells,
Bells, bells, bells—
In the clamor and the clangor of the bells!
"The Bells"
by Edgar Allan Poe
His three boats stove around him, and oars and men both whirling in the eddies; one captain, seizing the line-knife from his broken prow, had dashed at the whale, as an Arkansas duellist at his foe, blindly seeking with a six inch blade to reach the fathom-deep life of the whale. That captain was Ahab. And then it was, that suddenly sweeping his sickle-shaped lower jaw beneath him, Moby Dick had reaped away Ahab's leg, as a mower a blade of grass in the field.

Small reason was there to doubt, then, that ever since that almost fatal encounter, Ahab had cherished a wild vindictiveness against the whale, all the more fell for that in his frantic morbidness he at last came to identify with him, not only all his bodily woes, but all his intellectual and spiritual exasperations.

Ahab did not fall down and worship it like them; but deliriously transferring its idea to the abhorred white whale, he pitted himself, all mutilated, against it. All that most maddens and torments; all that stirs up the lees of things; all truth with malice in it; all that cracks the sinews and cakes the brain; all the subtle demonisms of life and thought; all evil, to crazy Ahab, where visibly personified, and made practically assailable in Moby Dick. He piled upon the whale's white hump the sum of all the general rage and hate felt by his whole race from Adam down; and then, as if his chest had been a mortar, he burst his hot heart's shell upon it.
Excerpt from "Moby Dick" (chapter 41)
by Herman Melville
The Scarlet Letter
Young Goodman Brown
presents individuals as prone to sin and self-destruction, not as inherently possessing divinity and wisdom.
DARK ROMANTICISM
Nathaniel
Hawthorne
(1804-1864)
Herman Melville (1819-1891)
Edgar Allan Poe
(1809-1849)
transcendentalism
A branch of Romanticism that believes in the inherent goodness of both people and nature.

Transcendentalists believe that society (organized politics and religion) corrupts each individual.

People are at their best when truly "self-reliant" and independent.
each individual person
=
inherently good
"organized" rules and society
=
corruptingand inherently bad
nature
industry
Warm-Up:
Can you think of a time in your life where you felt truly "ALIVE?" Not just "living" -- but full of life and the kind of passion that makes you want to live each second to the fullest?
Describe your experience in 5 sentences. This will be collected for a grade.
Henry David Thoreau
(1817-1862)
"Walden" (or "Life in the Woods")
p. 213-228
"We will walk on our own feet;
we will work with our own hands;
we will speak our own minds."
Ralph Waldo Emerson
(1803-1882)
"Nature" (206)
"Self Reliance" (209)
Full transcript