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Chapter 5:

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Mr. Smith

on 11 November 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 5:

Chapter 5:
Absolute Monarchs in Europe

What is absolutism?
Absolutism is -
Kings and Queens who control everything within their states' boundaries.
They control every aspect of their society
What is absolutism and why does it emerge in Europe during the 15-1600's?
Key concepts:
Why may it be a good thing to have one person be in control?



Why may it be a bad thing to have one person be in control?
If one person has absolute power
(within their own country) they:

Get things done quickly and decisively
Control army
Control money
Control colonies
Who's in control?
Middle ages?
Church, and Kings/Lords
Renaissance?
Church, Kings/Lords, Merchant/Upperclass
1600's?
Select and powerful Kings and Queens
Today?
Why do absolute monarchs emerge?
15-1600's Europe is in a state of war
Need for large military
How do you fund a large military?
Taxes
New taxes - creates unrest
Need for law and order
- Order comes from absolute monarchs
How would you get people to accept that you are in control in order to become an absolute monarch?
Spread the idea that God chose you to rule
- Divine right of kings
Spain
Hapsburg Family-
Monarchs - Divine Right
Given this right by God who created the monarchy
Monarch is God's representative on earth
Monarchs only answer to God
- NOT THEIR SUBJECTS!!!
"Beware of the family tree that does not branch"

- Dr. Carlis White
Charles V- Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V-

Controls land (Some inherited)
Spain
American Colonies
Italy
Austria
Netherlands
Germany

Catholic (fought Muslims and Protestants)




Peace of Augsburg
- German princes could choose their religion
Charles V Retires


Ferdinand I (Brother) Phillip II (Son)


Austria
Holy Roman Empire
Spain
Netherlands
American Colonies
Phillip II
Catholic

Cut throat

Very wealthy

Huge military
1580 Uncle dies without an heir

Gains control of
Portugal
Africa
India
East Indies
Defender of Catholicism
1588
Sent Spanish Armada to punish English Protestants
- England supported protestant movement
- English pirates were a problem in the Atlantic
- Wanted to replace monarch with a Catholic

Phillip II vs. Queen Elizabeth I
English naval forces defeat the Spanish

Spain began with 130 vessels only 58 return
El Greco - "The Greek

Catholic
Painted Saints
and Martyrs

Spain is at its peak (Golden Age)



- Noble become patrons and artists

"The Holy Family"
The Miracle of Christ Healing the blind
A Portrait of a Lady
Techniques
Clashing colors
Distorted human figures
Expressed emotions symbolically
Diego Velazquez
Painted monarchs (and family)
and court life
Court Dwarf Don Antonio el Ingles
The Family of Philip the IV
Philip IV in Armor
The Spanish Empire Weakens
1. Inbreeding

- Hapsburg family believed in the purity of royal blood
Cousins married cousins
Created incompetent (Useless) rulers
2. Inflation

- Huge amounts of gold and silver in the Spanish Economy
(From the Americas)

Large supply = less value = prices rise
- Merchants begin to buy goods from other nations
3. Dutch Revolt

- Spain controlled the Spanish Netherlands
(Netherlands and Belgium)
Very different from Spain

Spain = Catholic, with slow economy
Netherlands= Protestant, with prosperous economy
3. Dutch Revolt continued...

- Philip II raised taxes
- Created obstacles to limit protestant worship

HOW DO YOU THINK THE DUTCH REACTED TO THIS???
The Dutch Revolt!!!

- Philip sends officials to stop rebellion
Duke of Alva

- 11 year struggle (thousands die)
Eventually the northern provinces declare independence (Protestant)
Southern provinces (Catholic) remained under Spanish control
4. Defeat of the Spanish Armada
Philip II sends 130 ships and 19,000 men

- Wants to pick up another 30,000 on the way
- Sail cross English Channel and invade
VS.
Spanish Galleons - 130
English Ships- 55
Spanish Armada is defeated
(Permanently weakened)

- 70 ships lost
- 20,000 men lost

England only lost few hundred men
-Lost a few ships (set on fire on purpose)
Remember????
5. Debt
- To finance wars Spanish kings borrow money from German and Italian bankers
Philip declares Bankruptcy 3X
France & The Age of Absolutism
1559 King Henry II died
All 3 sons ruled after, all incompetent
Catherine de Medici real mastermind
Chaos due to tensions between Catholics and Huguenots (French Protestants)

Setting the Stage
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

- 1572
French Protestant nobles (Huguenots) travel to Paris for a wedding

After wedding
- 6 week slaughter throughout all of France
Prince that survives becomes king Henry IV
- First king of the Bourbon Dynasty
*One of most powerful dynasties in Europe
Henry IV
Decisive, fearless, and clever

Converts to Catholicism
"Paris is well worth a mass"
- Stabilizes France
Edict of Nantes - 1598
Henry declares religious toleration for Huguenots
France is becoming powerful and prosperous
Henry IV murdered
1610 - Fanatic stabbed him to death
Louis XIII
Henry's son

- Weak Monarch
Louis XIII appoints him a minister/advisor

- Becomes "ruler" of France 1624- 1642
Made monarch more powerful
Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu continued...
Wanted to limit power of the Hapsburg

- Surrounded France
Due to religious violence a new form of thinking emerges
- Nothing can ever be known for certain
- We should doubt and question old ideas
Including religion
Skepticism- Search for Truth
Michel de Montaigne
Rene Descartes- "I think therefore I am"
Main writer of skepticism
- Created scientific method
- Founder of modern philosophy

Weakened Huguenots and Nobles
- No walls around towns and No castles!!!
- Employed middle class (not nobles) in government
Developed the essay
- Old ideas were accepted as truth
- New Ideas replace old ideas as truth
- Ideas in the future will replace new ideas
Can never be absolutely positive
*Believed a demon was in control
Cardinal Mazarin
Successor of Richelieu
Advisor to the French King 1642-1661
Louis XIII - dies 1643
Son (Louis XIV) only 4 years old
- Mazarin is "ruler"
Nobles awake Louis XIV at night in his bedroom
- Dislikes nobility from then on
- Decides to become so powerful they could never
threaten him again
Riots against Mazarin during this time period
Riots end and Mazarin builds a powerful administration
- Shows Louis XIV how to rule


Mazarin as a mentor
Cardinal Mazarin dies in 1661
Louis XIV is 22
- Now in control of France
Louis XIV - The "Sun King"
Greatly weakened the power on nobles
Most powerful of the Absolute Monarchs
Ruled 72 years (first 16 under under Mazarin)
"I am the state"
Excludes nobles from his council
Increased power of "intendants"
- government agents
*collected taxes and administered justice
Local Officials reported to him regularly
Revokes the Edict of Nantes!!!

- KICKS OUT HUGUENOTS
Builds the largest most powerful and advanced army in Europe

- Constantly at war during his reign

Population: France 20 Million
England 5 Million
Dutch 2 Million
Jean Baptiste Colbert
Louis XIV finance minister
Believed in mercantilism (in house)
Encouraged migration to French Canada
- Raw materials and new market
Created tariffs (taxes on foreign goods)
Versailles
Originally a hunting lodge outside Paris
Louis XIV builds a massive palace there
Everything demonstrates power and authority
Nobility lived there
- Constantly entertained so an eye could
be kept on them
1638- 1715
Louis XIV dies
Review
Good
Louis makes France very powerful
Largest military
Lots of new colonies
Leader of the arts
Bad
France is in debt
High taxes
War of Spanish Succession
1700 Charles II of Spain dies
Throne goes to Louis XIV’s grandson
Other European countries felt threatened…banned together
War: 1701-1714

Treaty of Utrecht
Louis’s grandson could remain king as long as he did not also rule France
Great Britain gets land from Spain (Gibraltar)
Great Britain is now allowed to trade Slaves in the Americas
"OMG! They said you can stay!!!"
Gibraltar
British Slave Trade
Ch 5 Section 3: Central European Monarchs Clash
The Holy Roman Empire
Charlemagne- Dec 25, 800 AD
- Crowned as emperor
Conquers Western portion of Roman Empire

Encouraged learning
- Wanted Rome back "good old days"
Charlemagne dies, empire splits into 3 parts
"Empire" is becoming weak

Becomes a confederation
- Allies when needed
- Loosely controlled by law
-100's of states
7 largest most powerful and important states
- Duke of Saxony
- Margrave of Brandenburg
- King of Bavaria
- Count Palatine of the Rhine
- Archbishop of Mainz
- Archbishop of Trier
- Archbishop of Cologne
The Electors
When the Holy Roman Emperor died these electors would come together and vote.

- The Electors were supposed to keep the title of Holy Roman Emperor from being a dynastic rule
- Did not work (Hapsburg family will be in control)
The Electors
Passing a law

If a law was to be created in the HRE it needed to be approved by the Imperial Diet

- A legislative body made up of 3 parts
1. Electors (Could override the others)
2. Council of Princes
3. Council of Cities
Once vote was cast and decided upon the Holy Roman Emperor needed to approve it

- Typically always approved it
If the Holy Roman Emperor wanted to pass a law he needed the electors to agree or else it would not pass

- HRE is not as powerful as we think
Protestant Reformation
Charles I - Peace of Augsburg (1555)


Prince chose what religion they and their people were
60 years of peace
Does not fix the root problem just paused
1618

- Countries are more organized
- Better weapons
- WAR IS INEVITABLE!!!
Power???
The 30 Years War
1618-1648
$ 2.1 Billion
Stealth Bomber?
Palace of Versailles?
$2-3 Billion Dollars
Cost of a new high school?
$ 40-60 Million
Last of the religious wars

Causes
1. Political- Civil War within the HRE
Protestant Union vs Catholic League
- Religion and power

European alliances
* Spain/Hapsburgs- Catholic
* France- Protestants? (Nothing to do with religion)
2. Religion- Catholics, Lutherans, Protestants violate
the Peace of Augsburg
*Calvinism was not an option
The War- Four phases
Phase 1- Bohemian phase- 1618-1625

Phase 2- Danish Phase- 1625- 1629

Phase 3- Swedish Phase- 1630-1635

Phase 4- Franco-Swedish Phase 1635- 1648
The Spark of War
1618- Defenstration of Prague

An argument between Protestant leaders and Representative to the Catholic Emperor
Protestants demanded an answer to what was going to happen to their lands.

The representatives failed to answer the question
- Thrown out of a 3rd story window (70 ft)
The representatives live!!!
Catholics believe that they were saved/carried by angels
Protestants believe they landed in a pile of manure

?
First half of the 30 years war
Phase 1&2- Hapsburgs are winning

Second half of the 30 years was
Phase 3&4- Hapsburgs losing
Peace of Westphalia
Change in European power!
* French- Most powerful
Paris is the center of Europe
France controls Alsace Lorraine
* Ends Spanish domination
* Ends the HRE- Hundreds of independent states
* Switzerland & Netherlands independently recognized
* Religious tolerance
* Pope loses power except in Italian city states
Germany (after the war)
4-5 Million die (War/Famine/Plague)
Trade routes change (cities never recover)
Rise of Prussia
Rise of Austria
After 30 years war Hapsburgs gain control of
Czechoslovakia
Hungary
Italy
Croatia
Germany
Charles VI
*Wanted his eldest daughter to inherit the Austrian thrown
Maria Theresa

*Persuades other European countries to accept her as the reigning monarch
Most accept because they feel a woman would be a weak monarch
Controlled by the Hohenzollerns of Austria


After 30 years war central Europe is very weak
3 major powers:
Poland, Holy Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire
Serfs kept from owning land- middle class grew slowly

2 Powerful families step in to strengthen Central Europe….

Hapsburgs vs Hohenzollerns
Frederick William - Militaristic

- Witnessed 30 years war
- Decided peace was possible only with a large military
* Best in Europe (80,000)
- Payed for military with permanent taxation
- Named himself king
Frederick II (The Great)
Son of Frederick William
Worried his son was not militaristic enough

War of the Austrian Succession

Maria Theresa raises an Army but loses
Loses Silesia in treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Prussia is now a major European power!!!
7 Years War
1756-1763 The "first" world war

Frederick the Great (Hohenzollern) attacked Saxony (Austrian ally)
Soon all European countries were involved, competing over colonial territories
Britain victorious (gained sole domination of India)
France lost North American colonies
Two Parts
I'm pretty great!!!
1740-
Frederick wanted Austrian territory
Silesia (Iron ore, textiles, food)
I want Silesia
for Christmas!!!
I am woman
hear me roar!!!
Frederick the Great sends army to occupy Silesia
Assumed Maria Theresa was weak because she as a woman and would not defend herself
Your weak!!!
1748
#
Protestant
Catholic
We got no food. We got no jobs. MY BEST FRIEND'S HEAD JUST GOT CHOPPED OFF!!!
- Lloyd Christmas
French and Indian War
Chapter 5 Section 4

Absolute Rulers in Russia
Setting the Stage

Ivan III 1462-1505
- Conquered area around Moscow
- Liberated Russia from the Mongols
- Centralized Russian Government

Vasily (Ivan III's son)
- Added territory to Russia
- Increased the power of the central government
Ivan IV (The Terrible) 1533
Comes to power at age 3
- Dad died of leg infection

Difficult upbringing
- Mom is his regent (in charge)
- Boyars (landowning nobles) wanted to control him

Age 16
- Declares himself Czar "Caesar"
- Marries Anastasia
*Romanov Family
Rule by Terror "Bad Period"
Ivan's Secret Police
Thousands of Boyars, their families, and peasant die

Estates seized and given to a new noble class
- Must remain loyal to Ivan to keep land
1581
Ivan beats eldest sons pregnant wife causing a miscarriage
Son and Ivan get into an argument
- Ivan ends up "accidentally" killing son
*Struck him in the head
- Ivan's youngest son is left to inherit the thrown

Oprichniki
Frederick the Great
Maria Theresa
VS
Results of the 7 years war in Europe?
No change in territories
BEFORE
AFTER
7 Years War
Review:

What were the causes of the 30 Years War?
Religion, territory, and
the power of European ruling families
Rise of the Romanovs
Ivan IV dies in 1584
Younger son was weak
- Physically and mentally incapable of ruling
Time of Troubles
Boyars struggled for power since there was no heir.
Heirs of the Czars mysteriously die
Imposters attempt to claim the thrown

1613 Romanov Dynasty Begins!!!
Representative from Russian cities will meet
They choose Michael Romanov as their next Czar
(Grandnephew of Ivan the Terrible's Wife Anastasia)
Romanovs will...

restore order
strengthen the government
passed new laws
put down revolts
create absolute monarchs
Czar Peter I (The Great) 1696
Great Russian reformer
- Will increase the power of the Czar
- STRONG 6FT 6IN
Russia Before- Peter The Great
land of Boyars and serfs
Serfdom until the mid 1800's
New little about the western world
(Mongols cut off Russia during Renaissance and age of exploration)
Frozen seaports (cut off)
Eastern Orthodox (avoided others)
Peter The Great
1697
Goes on "Grand Embassy"
Tour of Western Europe
- Learned European Customs,
manufacturing techniques

Peter decides changes must be made to be successful
Warm water ports
New manufacturing techniques
Peter's Absolute Rule
Peter starts to put in place everything he learned on his trip
Competitive militarily and economically
Westernization
Needed to be an absolute ruler to force change
Controlled the Russian Orthodox Church
Reduced power of wealthy Boyars
Hired/promoted low ranked families
-rewarded them with land
Modernized military (200,000)
- hired European officers to train his military
Heavy taxes
Westernizing Russia

Introduced potatoes
Started a newspaper
Raised women's status
Nobles wore western clothing
Advanced education
- Schools on navigation, art, and science
St. Petersburg
Opened Russia up to
- Travel, trade, education
"The Window of Europe"
Peter The Great fights Sweden for 21 years
- Finally gets part of the Baltic coast
- Now has access to Western Europe all year
- Names it after the patron saint

Building the city

Marshy swamp
Up to 100,000 serfs die working on it
- danger and disease
Nobles forced to live there (new capital)
Review
Peter the Great succeeded in westernizing Russia
Government
Culture
- died 1725
Give up your beard!!!
Ivan had great victories, added land, created a code of laws, and ruled justly.
"Good Period" (1547-1560)
Anastasia dies
Ivan accuses Boyars of poisoning her

Organized personal secret police force
Job was to hunt down and murder those Ivan saw as traitors
Dressed in black and rode black horses
Michael Romanov
I choose you!!!
St. Basils Cathedral
workers
^
THEY BUILD ME AN
AWESOME CATHEDRAL
Chapter 5 Section 5

Parliament Limits the English Monarchy
Horrible Histories-Scottish Puritans-HD 1080p

Horrible Histories - Charles II meets the man who tried to steal the Crown Jewels
Horrible Histories-King Charles I Wedding-HD 1080p

Horrible Histories - English Civil War Song

Charles II

King John Online (Dutch subs)

England's Monarchs Lose Power 1066 A.D.
William the Conqueror takes English crown
- Must consult council to pass laws to keep peace

King John (very unpopular ruler)
- Council revolts and forces him to sign Magna Carta in 1215.

This “great charter” is first document in western history to directly place limits on monarch.

Series of restrictions of what monarch can do, most important of which is that he cannot impose taxes without consent of council
Magna Carta 1215
This original council evolves gradually into Parliament
Parliament divided into 2 houses
– Lords and Commons
Lords was made of appointed members -nobility and high clergy
Commons represented the people

* Little by little Commons gains power and Lords lose power (they become ceremonial)
Parliament called upon regularly by king to approve taxes, especially in times of war.
Elizabeth's Reign
Parliament and queen constantly argued over money due to wars, religious issues, and beginnings of colonies/exploration.

Elizabeth never married/no children
Throne passed to her cousin, James Stuart (king of Scotland)
Joined the crowns of those nations.
Stuart Kings (James Stuart)
Stuart kings were big believers in absolutism and divine right
Was very tolerant of Catholics angering many, especially Puritans

Puritans were Protestants who felt that the Anglican church needed to be more pure than Catholicism.
Charles I Fights Parliament
1625- James dies
- Charles I (James' son) is king
Always asking Parliament for money
(War with France and Spain)
Petition of Right - 1628
Charles I asks Parliament for more money
Parliament agrees as long as he signs a document
- King agreed
He would not imprison subjects without due cause
He would not levy taxes without Parliament's consent
He would not house soldiers in private homes
He would not impose martial law in peacetime
Charles ignores his agreement

- Agreement is still important
* Creates idea that law is higher than the king
- Contradicts divine right
1637

Charles offends the Puritan and Scots

- Created fees and fines to get money
- Very unpopular
1629
Charles I stops talking to Parliament
- Upheld rituals of Anglican church
- Attempts to force Presbyterian Scots to accept the
Anglican prayer book
*Wanted both kingdoms to share religion
SCOTS THREATEN TO INVADE ENGLAND!!!

- Charles needs money
- Must go to Parliament
- Parliament takes opportunity to oppose
1641
Parliament passes laws limiting royal power

Charles attempts to arrest Parliament but they escape
London Riots!!!

- Charles flees north
- People loyal to him
make an army
The English Civil War 1642 - 1649
Royalists vs Puritans
Loyal to king
Cavaliers
Loyal to Parliament
Roundheads- shaved heads
Puritans finally win!!!
New general will turn the tides of war
Capture the king and hold him as prisoner

Oliver Cromwell
Charles I Trial
Found guilty of treason and sentenced to death
HUGE MOMENT- FIRST KING TO PUBLICLY PUT ON TRIAL AND EXECUTED
Cromwell's Rule - The Commonwealth
Oliver Cromwell in control after kings death
Abolishes (get rid of) house of lords and monarchy
Sets up a republican form of government (representative)
Tolerant of religions, even Jews (not Catholics)
Drafts a constitution but tears it in half
Becomes military dictator
Puritan Morality
Abolished activities they found sinful such as
Theater
Sports
Dancing
The Restoration
Cromwell dies 1658
Everyone is tired of military rule
Invite Charles II (Charles I son) to be king
Habeas Corpus - "to have the body"
We will invade
you!!!
Londoners
Horrible Histories Queen Elizabeth The 1st

Charles II and John Flamsteed

Party time!!! Charles II entrance parade 1660
Charles II dies 1686
No hier

Decide on James II (brother) to be the next king
Catholic!!!!!
Creates a major problem
Two political parties in England
Whigs
Tories
VS
Opposed James II
Supported James II
James's II Rule
Offended most of his subjects
- Placed Catholics in government positions
- Parliament protested so James dissolved it
- Wife had a son (next heir)
The Glorious Revolution - 1688
James II death
Catholic to Protestant
England scared of a new Catholic king



Parliament invited James' II daughter Mary (protestant) and her husband William of Orange (prince of the Netherlands) to overthrow James II
William of Orange leads army to England

- James II flees to France
- Bloodless overthrow
Constitutional Monarchy
Lets make a deal
In order to take the throne William and Mary agreed to sign the English Bill of Rights
- Officially making English monarchs a figurehead
English Bill of Rights

Monarchs may not...
suspend Parliaments laws
levy taxes with out Parliaments consent
interfere with parliaments freedom of speech
penalize a citizen for protesting the monarchy
The Cabinet System
Problem:
No monarch can rule without Parliaments consent
No parliament can rule without a monarch
Solution:
The Cabinet
Minister which acts in the rulers name
Really represents the majority party in Parliament
Called the Prime Minister (still system today)
Charles II agrees to a right to a fair trial
- Monarch can no longer throw people in jail
without a proper trial
We'll sign it!!!
You may not...
Your team needs to build a freestanding (can’t be attached to anything or held up) tower/structure of construction paper and tape as tall as you possibly can. The group with the tallest tower will get a fabulous fabulous prize.
I will not answer any questions or clarify as this is part of the activity. You have until I say stop.
When you come in, form 4 seperate groups of your choosing.
www.youtube.com/watch?v=XxIzMr2Ekpo
Frederick II tried running away as a boy
Father punished him by cutting his friends head off and forcing him to watch

Setting the Stage -
Group1 – Conner, Russel, John

The German rulers
Had settled their differences
But the churches would split
Because of the princes.
The Thirty Years War –
Group 2 – Alex, Natalie, Lauren, Jess, Carly, Brandon

Lutheran and Catholic Princes gained followers
Calvinism threatened them
Lutherans joined the Protestant Union
It would take only a spark to set off the war
Bohemian Protestant Revolt
– Group 3 – Madison, Lucia, Kua

The spark came in 1618
Ferdinand the II ruled the Kingdom of Bohemia
Ferdinand was a foreigner and a Catholic
The Protestants revolted
After their protestant churches closed
The Thirty-year war began
Hapsburg Triumphs –
Group 4 – Jimmy, Cory, Mitchel

1618 to ’48, the war of 30 years
brought 12 years tears and fear
Hapsburg armies from Austria n’ Spain
Punched Protestant troops w/ a fist of pain
The Czech uprising and its supporters were put down
Ferdinand, w/ an army of 125,000 men, was bluffin
His men were stopped by nothin’
German villages, plundered and robbed
But don’t you sob
Hapsburg Defeats –
Group 5 – Jenna

The Hapsburgs turned blue
In 1632
The Cardinal Richelieu
Likes beef stu
He feared the Hapsburgs
More that the Protestants
Sent troop to join the fight
To drive out all the Hapsburg tonight
Peace of Westphalia –
Group 6 – Tanner, Matt, Jesse

The War of 30 years
Did great damage to Germany
Took a big hit to the economy
20 mil to 16 mil
That’s wack yo
The Germans economy was ruined

Horrible Histories Song - Magna Carta 800 Years - CBBC
Horrible Histories - Charles I Punishments
Horrible Histories - Episode 3 - BBC series 21:24
Cromwell banning Christmas video
Full transcript