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Trail Adventures THE MISSIONARIES Hardships Geographical Setting
Natural Resources -Heavily wooded; Lumber
-Fur trapping or fur
-Fishing, by the coast
-Can have unpredictible weather
-Jobs affected by nautral resources and geographical setting
-The Whitman's were located by the Wall Walla river Lasting Legacy Background of the Group In 1831 three Nez Perce came to St. Louis and asked if someone would teach them about the secrets of the "Black Book", the Bible. Marcus and Narcissa Whitman, and Henry and Eliza Spalding all were happy to make the journey. In 1836 the two couples traveled from St. Louis along the Oregon Trail. The Whitman's Narcissa Prentiss was born in 1808 in Prattsburgh, New York in a Presbyterian family. She was very religious as a child and started doing missionary work at 16. Later she married Marcus Whitman.
Marcus was born in 1802, and studied under a local doctor. He recieved his degree from the medical college at Fairfield in 1832, and practiced medicine for four years in Canada. Then he returned back to New York. He became an elder of the local Presbyterian Church. The Spaldings Henry Spalding was born in 1803,
and in 1825 he entered the Franklin Academy. He graduated from the Western Reserve College in 1833. In 1835 Henry applied for work under the American Board of Commissioners for foreign missions.
Eliza Hart was born in Berlin, Connecticut, in 1807. In 1820 her family moved to Holland Patent, New York. In 1833 she and Henry were married before she went to Lane Seminary. While there, she attended classes on the Bible and theological lectures of Lyman Beecher. -In 1839 Henry baptised two Nez Perce Chiefs, later he baptized a Nez Perce baby who eventually became a chief
-Not a single Cayuse was converted to the new faith
-Marcus Whitman was successful at converting Americans to the belief that Oregon was a pioneer's paradise
-Eliza and Narcissa were the first white women to cross the continental divide
-The Whitman's deaths are now known as the Whitman Massacre By: Tareq
Alexa Reasons Why They Moved West -Oregon country was supposedly a "pioneers paradise"
-They wanted to convert non-Christians to Christianity
-Wanted to teach the Nez Perce about the Bible
-Their goal was to spread the gospel to all geographical regions in order to reach all people
-Missionaries wanted to convert the Native Americans and bring them religion
-Believed that the Indians were savages and didn't have good beliefs
-Did not want the Indians to believe what they wanted and thought converting would be the best plan
These are Narcissa and Marcus Whitman. Marcus and Narcissa were two of the original four Missionaries. These are Eliza and Henry Spalding. They went on the Oregon Trail with the Whitman's. Daily Life ~very busy
~going to Church
~combined religious activities
~running a large community
~building the mission (often included more than 20 buildings)
~making sure enough for everyone to eat (missions had large farms and ranches)
~overseeing all the goods the missions needed (each had blacksmiths and candle makers, made their own clothing, etc.)
~completely dependent on the Church to meet their needs Marcus and Narcissa Whitman praying for safe travels. Leisure Time ~one day off, called “P-Day” (preparation day) which is their “free day” to do laundry, write letters home, go shopping, play basketball, etc.
~outdoor life Job Opportunities ~farming
~cleaning the grain
~as the 19th century moved on, steam power, gasoline engine tractors, and electricity took over these jobs, making them easier
~Being a Missionary was their main occupation
Work ~entered the Franciscan at very
young age (about 16)
~studied to become priests
~only become missionaries if
~if accepted, left homeland
(almost all came from france)
~good chance never see parents or
died in CA and never returned home
~tried to convert Indians to Christianity
~Marcus held church services, practiced medicine and constructed numerous buildings; Narcissa ran their household, assisted in the religious ceremonies, and taught in the mission school -Terribly steep mountains
-The Cayuse were hard to convert
-Whitmans were not very successful
at spreading Christianity
-The Cayuse were more interested
in their weapons and tools, and did not care for the Whitmans religion
-The Whitmans refused to pay for the land they used, which angered the Cayuse
-Cayuse were dying from a measles outbreak while the white people were recovering, which angered the Indians
-Rumors spread that Marcus Whitman was giving Indians deadly pills
-Marcus and Narcissa were killed by angry warriors Works Cited
California Missions Resource Center. "What Was Mission Life like for the Missionaries and Why Were the Missions so Important?" California Missions Resource Center. Pentacle Press, LLC, n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2013. <http://www.missionscalifornia.com/ate/mission-life-missionaries-why-missions-important.html>.
Presbyterian Historical Society. "Spalding, Henry Harmon (1803-1874) and Eliza Hart (1807-1851) Papers, 1833-1850." Presbyterian Historical Society, n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2013. <http://www.history.pcusa.org/collections/findingaids/fa.cfm?record_id=283>.
Schaubs, Michael. "Narcissa Whitman & Eliza Spalding." Narcissa Whitman & Eliza Spalding. Malachite’s Big Hole, n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2013. <http://www.mman.us/whitmanspalding.htm>.
SNAC. "Spalding, Henry Harmon, 1803-1874. NWDA." Spalding, Henry Harmon, 1803-1874. SNAC: The Social Networks and Archival Context Project, 1 Aug. 2012. Web. 21 Mar. 2013. <http://socialarchive.iath.virginia.edu/xtf/view?docId=spalding-henry-harmon-1803-1874-cr.xml>. Illustration of the unpredictable weather