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Theorists of Child Development
Transcript of Theorists of Child Development
Theory is based on operant conditioning with positive and negative reinforcements where rewards tend to create a repetition of a desired behavior.
He studied reflexes, (ex: blinking), and concluded that some automic behavior can be manipulated. He defined this manipulation as conditioning. He further developed his theory based on conditioning experiments with animals and children. He believed that behavior can be controlled by stimuli. Vygotsky Chomsky His theory of proximal development (ZPD) outlined the period between learning with assistance and mastering it individually. He also emphasized a child's need for interpersonal communication, learning through observation, cultural knowledge as a basis to learning development, and
guided participation eventually leading to mastery. He developed theories on language acquisition and considered it an innate process. He believedthat there is a critical period for learning languages as well as developing knowledge. Adler Erikson Urie Freud Kohlberg After instruction of Freud, Adler journeyed into a different direction where he explored concepts of social structure. His concept of 'inferiority complex' explained the importance of self-esteem. For children he believed that parents, teachers, and society needed to enable their ability to make reasoned decisions, or an
'individual psychology'. Believed that an ever-changing environment of experiences builds learning skills. Confidence in one's ability serves as motivation to learning. He termed this theory as the ego identity. Learning will consist of conflicts that either lead to or hault development. He developed the Ecological Systems Theory, in which he described the microsystem (family/class), the mesosystem (interaction of two microsystems), exosystem (external environmental influences), macrosystem (socio-cultural context), and the chronosystem (evolution of external systems). Each system contains roles, norms, and rules that shape development. Freud's theory of Psychodynamics was a central concept of the psychological forces that underlie human behavior, therefore emphasizing a connection between unconscious and conscious motivation. Kohlberg's stages of moral development incorporated six developmental stages, each a more positive response to morally challenging situations than the previous stage. He determined that moral development primarily depended on seeking out of justice. Moral development was regarded as a lifelong process that uniquely shaped for each individual. He examines how young people acquire their values and how parents, teachers, and mentors can help foster and strengthen their moral character. Coles sheds light on what he calls "a third realm" of mental activity — the part of us that knows right from wrong and good from bad. He contends that character is ultimately who we are expressed in action. Piaget Bloom Bandura Goleman Mischel Piaget focused on how organisms, in this case, humans, adapt to their environment; or develop intelligence. He believed that behavior, or adaption, is controlled through schemes used to represent the world and designate action. Adaption is driven by a biological need to obtain equilibrium. Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains is a classification of principles and categories essential to learning. His theory configured a classical approach toward developing knowledge, attitude, and skills which produced an effective method of planning, designing, assessing, and evaluating learning effectiveness. He believed that eople learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling. The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation. He believed that intelligence was increasingly relevant to organizational and social development. He developed the emotional intelligence theory which provides a new way to understand and assess children's behaviors, learning styles, attitudes, social skills, and potential. He revealed through studies that an individual's behaviorwas highly dependent on situational cues. Therefore he proposed that people reacted/performed differently depending on the context of the situation. He termed these unique individualized patterns as 'personality signatures' "all children share the same internal contraints which characterize narrowly the grammar they are going to construct." (Chomsky, 1977, p.98) Coles Needs Ainsworth Maslow Gilligan Gilligan proposes a stage theory of moral development for girls, since any gender differences of learning were not taken into account before her time. She believes that girls are not inferior in their personal or moral development, but that they are different. Therefore she contends that they develop in a way that focuses on connections among people (rather than separation) and with an ethic of care for those people (rather than an ethic of justice). She further developed the attachment theory which compared the behaviors of secure children, anxious-ambibalent insecure children, and anxious-avoidant insecure children. Her main theory focused on the importance of care-givers building confidence in their children to explore their environment with a sense of security, which builds confidence and leads to further development. His development of Hierarchy of Needs establishes 5 levels growth. Physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem, and self-actualization are reached through positive emotional growth, where more basic needs are the foundation to the pyramid and complex needs are structured at the top.