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Cat Holloway

on 22 October 2015

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Transcript of Horses

"No hour of life is wasted that is spent in the saddle."
Winston Churchill

The Wonder of Horses
There are more than 350 breeds of
horses and ponies in the world today. Some horses are bred for the way they look, their size and proportions. Others
are bred for a specific job or sport.
Horses may be bred to survive in certain environments, eg; the Namibian Desert
Horse might not survive in the Snowy
Mountains. Next we will look at five
fascinating horse breeds.
All horses have different personalities. These true stories show that there is no such thing
as a horse with the exact same
nature as another horse! They
are all UNIQUE!
Black Caviar
Black Caviar has a WONDERFUL personality! Read on to find out about her competitive and loving spirit.
Phar Lap
Phar Lap would
never EVER give
up. I can't imagine
any other animal doing what
Phar Lap did.
Cheeky horses
There are LOADS of cheeky horses in the world! This is a true story about a horse called Babe and her exciting runaway adventure!
Gemma was the horse I rode at a
horse camp
in Kangaroo Valley.
Naughty Chenowa
On the 20th of November, 2012, Black Caviar won the racing industry personality of the year award. She was the first animal to ever win this award! It is usually given to people such as trainers and race callers.

Black Caviar, more tall, muscular and bulky than other racehorses, was calm, courageous and absolutely determined to WIN. Even at her 4th race, when she charged through the gates so fast that she fell onto another horse, she still got up and won the race!

As she soared down the track during her record 22 wins of 22 races, Black Caviar "carried so many peoples dreams with her".
Personality of the year...
Just keep going...
After travelling by ship from Australia to San Francisco then 800km by road to Mexico, Phar Lap was to race against some of the best horses in America on March 20, 1932. But, Phar Lap tore his hoof and his owner (David J. Davis) and regular jockey (Billy Elliot) thought that he wouldn't be able to run. The vet thought that Phar Lap could though. So he did.

To make it fair, Phar Lap had to carry 58.5kg of extra weight to make it harder for him to run because he kept winning. AND he was forced, for the first time, to wear heavy bar shoes to protect his hoof. Also, he was growing his winter coat to prepare for the Australian winter, not the boiling Mexican summer! But, he entered the gates. He bolted down the track. Blood streamed off his split hoof. He was in last place. But somehow Phar Lap found a burst of energy and overtook the entire pack to end up easily winning by two lengths! He also made a world record taking 0.2 seconds off the last best time!

Everyone called him the Wonder Horse.


Runaway Horse
Babe heard the sound of a motor and immediately, she bolted. She ran and ran and ran down the muddy trail. She ran for miles and miles. Her rider, Cathy Cleveland, didn't know what to do. She was trying to hold on and concentrate on how to stop Babe. Maybe she would jump off? Or, steer Babe into a bush, hoping she would stop? She didn't know. Plus, the trail was slippery and muddy. Babe could slip at any moment.

Finally, after what seemed hours, and probably was, Babe started to slow down. Cathy was really angry with Babe. But, she also felt a bit sorry for her. She yelled at Babe for a bit then realised that she needed to calm her down by talking gently and patting her.

Cathy was AMAZED that she didn't fall off! Babe was running at full speed for what seemed like forever! But now it was all over, thankfully. Both she and Babe were safe. PHEW!
I want to break free...
Gemma and I were in the arena at the Kangaroo Valley Horse Camp. We were walking, trotting then cantering. Every time we passed a corner of the rectangular arena, Gemma cut the corner. I tried and tried to steer her to the edge, but she would not do it! She would just keep cutting the corners. (It was hard enough to try and get her to not overtake anyone else!)
After the arena training, Deborah (the leader of the camp) decided to go on a trail ride. I love trail rides and as it turns out, so does Gemma! On the trail ride she was WONDERFUL!!! She would do exactly as she was told and not overtake anyone unless she was I lead her around them.

Gemma loves being free and wild, not stuck in a enclosed space following everyone around!
I am like that too so our trail ride was AWESOME!
Find out about his perseverance in the face of exhaustion, pain, heat and injury. HE WAS A CHAMPION!
He was a horse superhero!
Gemma has a crazy and wild personality but she is also
gentle and calm.
It hurts when
you get bucked right off the front of a horse! Find out more about this naughty little pony named Chenowa.
Bucked right off...
My friend Faith was riding her little Shetland pony, Chenowa, around the arena. Chenowa was not being as well behaved as she usually was. She was cantering when she was meant to be walking and trotting when she was meant to be cantering! Sometimes she would shake her head around. It took a while just to catch her to put the saddle on!

Suddenly, she just stopped for about 2 seconds. Then she started trying to buck Faith off. Her back legs flew up into the air and she shook her head around crazily. Faith tried to hold on but, instead, she flew straight off over Chenowa's head, turning a front flip as she flew, and landed in the dirt. When she got, up I saw that her mouth was filled with dirt. She sat down and watched everyone else ride for a bit then she went up to her house where her big sister took care of her. Meanwhile, Faith's mum put Chenowa back in the field.

Hopefully she will never EVER buck anyone else off again!!!
The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. Thoroughbreds are often called "hot-blooded" horses, because of their agility, speed and their energetic and competitive spirit.

Distinguishing features:

Tall, slim, athletic horse, used for racing and many equestrian sports

Country of origin:


Common nicknames:



All Thoroughbred horses born in the Northern Hemisphere celebrate the same birthday of January 1st! But in the Southern Hemisphere we celebrate horses' birthdays on
August 1st.

The Thoroughbred horse, Secretariat, had the heaviest heart ever. It weighed 21 pounds! That’s approximately 2.5 (two and a half) times the weight of the average horse’s heart!

Thoroughbreds also hold the record for being the highest jumping horses. Huaso was a Thoroughbred who set the high-jump world record on February 5, 1949, by jumping 8 ft (2.47 m).
About the Thoroughbred
About the Arabian
The Arabian horse is a breed of horse that originated on the Arabian Peninsula, which includes the modern middle-eastern countries of Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Oman. They are used to improve other breeds by adding speed, refinement, endurance, and strong bones. Today, Arabian bloodlines are found in almost every modern breed of riding horse.

Distinguishing features:
finely chiseled bone structure, arched neck, high-carried tail.

Alternative names:

Arabian, Arab


The Arabian Horse is one of the oldest breeds ever, with archaeological evidence that dates the Arabians back at least 4,500 years. There is even some evidence that shows the Arabian to exist 9,000 years ago!

The pure Arabian horse 's skeleton is unique. Instead of 18 pairs of ribs, the Arabian has 17 and instead of 6 vertebrae, the breed has 5!

More Arabian horses live in the United States today than anywhere else in the world!
About the Akhal-Teke

The Akhal-Teke is a horse breed from Turkmenistan, where they are a national emblem. They have a reputation for speed and endurance, intelligence, and a distinctive metallic sheen on their coat. These horses have adapted to severely cold, dry desert weather and are one of the oldest existing horse breeds. Many believe they were first bred by Mongol raiders in the 13th century. There are 6,600 Akhal-Tekes in the world, mostly in Turkmenistan and Russia, although they are also found throughout Europe and North America.

Distinguishing features:

Riding horse bred for endurance and jumping. They have muscular withers and
sparse mane and tail.


Today in modern Russia, owning an Akhal-Teke is a sign of wealth or that you have money to throw around. It's the same as owning an expensive house or car.

Akhal means pure and Teke is the tribe that bred them.

In Europe today, there is a 30-second ad, which tells about the main symbols of the country, one of which happens to be the Akhal-Teke horse. That alone shows the importance of the horse among the people.
About the Falabella
The Falabella horse is one of the smallest breeds of horse in the world, rarely taller than 8 hands (32 inches, 81 cm) at the withers. The Falabella, despite its size, is not considered a pony, instead it is a miniature horse.

Country of origin


Most Falabellas are considered intelligent and easily trainable. Because of their size, Falabella horses can only be ridden by very small children, and are generally shown on a lead at horse shows. They can be taught to wear a harness and tow a cart, and carriage driving is a favorite activity of Falabella owners.

They also are able to jump obstacles up to three feet, though only on a lead, without a rider.

Falabella's most common colors are bay and black, but there are also pintos, palominos and other spotting patterns found.

They are used more for guide horses, like guide dogs! WOW
About the Mustang
The mustang is a free-roaming horse of the American west that first descended from horses brought to the Americas by the Spanish. Mustangs are often called wild horses, but because they actually descended from once-domesticated horses, they should be called feral horses.

Distinguishing features:

Small, compact, good bone, very hardy

Country of origin:
North America


In the wild, Mustangs can live up to 40 years. Hurt or disabled horses are protected by the herd and can live remarkably long lives when compared with other animal species that live in the wild.
The Biology of a horse or pony includes what
they look like from the outside and how their body works from the inside. All of this is very important to know if you want to own or take care of a horse. You have to know it's body language to work out what the horse is trying to tell you. Also, if you want to
describe any horse, then you would have
to know the colours and markings of the different breeds. If you want to find out LOADS more
about the biology of horses, keep reading!
Colours and Markings
Every horse has at least 1 little difference from each other! There are so many different colours and markings of
different types of horses! Next, you are going to discover
things you never new about the beautiful patterns on these amazing animals.
The anatomy is the different body parts inside the
horse. Next, you are going to learn the different parts
of a horse and what they do to help keep the horse alive.
The lifespan is how long the animal usually lives. Horses can live surprisingly long lives. They don't live to 100 like some lucky people, but read on to find out about the oldest horse. You'll be AMAZED! Horses are definitely not like Mayflies!!!
The reproduction is the process of pregnancy to a foal.
Soon, you will know everything there is to know about the reproduction of horses - the good and bad things about it!
Horses are AMAZING animals, they can be huge! Some people even call their horses Big______
or Small______! I've ridden a horse called Big Red but never ridden one called Small Yellow!
(their name)
(their name)
Colours and Markings
Colours and markings tell us about horses' breed and origin.

It helps to know the detail of the markings your horse has on it because if your horse is in a stable with a group of other horses, you have to remember what colour it is and what markings it has so you know which one it is!!! Also, it makes the horse look pretty!
Equine Anatomy
Esophagus- A tube that carries food to the stomach

Lung- Respiratory organ made up of stretchy tissue and forming a sac; air from the buccal cavity flows into it.

Cecum- Lateral canal in the front of the intestine where a part of digestion and fermentation take place.

Kidney- Organ releasing urine; it gets rid of toxic substances from the body.

Rectum- End portion of the intestine, behind the colon releasing the urine and faeces (poo).

Intestine- Long thin portion of the digestive track behind the stomach where most of the digestion and food absorption take place.

Liver- An organ in the abdomen that releases bile to help digestion.

Heart- Muscular organ helping blood to circulate.
Colon- Intestinal part of the body between the small intestine and the rectum where waste collects before being released.

Spleen- Organ of the circulatory system where impurities in the blood are destroyed.

Stomach- The stomach receives food to be digested.
Trachea- Muscular canal made of cartilage that carries air from the nasal cavity to the lungs.
Many horses live beyond the age of 30 with good care.
The average is 25-30 years old! But many horses go well beyond this average.

Ponies tend to live longer, they go well into their 30s. A few ponies and horses may even reach the age of 40 or over. The oldest horse ever recorded was 62 years old!

Larger horses like draft breeds don't live as long as smaller breeds such as Arabians. Horses are one of the top ten oldest living animals!
Stallions are not very romantic because they usually aim to attract mares by repeatedly biting their sides, shoulders or rear end!!! They also often smell mares' bodies. Mares often react defensively by screaming, kicking and biting back. This behavior can last for days. However, stallions sometimes give up when the mares show signs of annoyance. If the mare seems happy then she will put up her tail. The male will put his top lips up and smell her urine. EW EW EW EW EW!!!

The mother horse, or mare, carries her foal for 11 months. Most mares give birth in spring to a single baby, called a foal, sometimes twins. Mares make milk for their young and will feed them for several months. Between one and two hours after the foal is born, it is able to stand up and walk.

When foals are born their legs are almost the same length as when they are grown up. A foal's legs are so long, it's hard for their heads to reach down to the grass to eat.

Foaling normally happens at night or early in the morning and is usually over in 15 minutes. Once the foal comes out, the mare will lick it to help blood circulation. In 15 minutes, the foal will try to stand and get milk from its mother.

A girl foal is called a filly and a boy foal is called a colt.

You can tell how old a horse is by its teeth. A foal is born toothless. By the time the foal is 6-9 months old, it has all of its milk teeth. At 5-6 years of age, the horse replaces its milk teeth with its permanent teeth. Horses are fully grown by 3-4 years of age.

Click play to watch this amazing video about Arabian horses.
Click play to watch fabulous footage of little-known Akhal-Teke horses.
This video is so cute, it will make you want to buy a Falabella of your own!
This Mustang video was shot from a drone because it is so hard to get close to wild horses.
What size horse is best for you?
Range of horse heights average:
Adult= 1.4-1.8m or 13.7-17.7hh.

Range of pony heights average:
Adult= 1.4m or 14.2 hh or shorter.
People are getting bigger but horses aren't! Also people are saddling up and riding their horses too young - before they have fully developed their bones and muscles.

To be sure you and your horse are safe and happily matched, used this handy formula.

Add weight of horse, rider, and tack

eg: Horse + rider + tack= 1200 pounds

Measure the circumference of the cannon bone midway between the knee and fetlock -
eg: 8 inches

Divide the total weight by the circumference -
eg: 1200/8 = 150

Divide by two -
eg: 150 / 2 = 75
If you get a value of 75 or under, that's great. From 75 to 80 is OK. But over 80 and you either need to train your horse carefully, lose some weight or choose a different horse!
Humans & Horses in History
Ever since they first met, horses have taught humans and humans have taught horses. The history and future of humans and horses are connected. From hunting wild horses to hunting with horses. We once used horses to fight wars, but now we use them to create peace and happiness in this world.

Horses are man's best friend.
I've learned the most about horses researching
this topic and I think you will too.
Extinction to Conservation
Ancient horses evolved in North American forests. They were originally the size of an average dog! Some migrated to Asia and Russia across the land bridge. But the ones that stayed behind became extinct because the weather became colder, the plants chnaged and, finally, humans arrived and hunted the last horses to extinction about 13,000 years ago. Meanwhile, the horses that went to Asia and Russia evolved into lots of different species and spread all over the world, except North America.
War Horse
Samurai warriors in Japan and the royal knights in England had something in common: horses were their secret weapon to win wars. The sword and the horse were both cultures symbols of power. Only the elite soldiers and upper classes were allowed to ride horses.

The legend of the half-man half-horse Centaur began because the first warriors that rode into ancient Greece looked so terrifying. But some of these Scythian warriors were women! And that led to the legends of the super Amazon women warriors who rode horses while shooting arrows.
Sport Horse
Humans have always recognised what amazing athletes horses are. Most horses can trot for many hours without stopping. A fit quarter horse can sprint 400m in 20 seconds. A talented thoroughbred can jump a fence more than 2 metres tall.

In ancient Greece, 700BC, crowds gathered to watch horses pull chariots around hairpin corners in rough races. Horses were first in the Olympics in 684BC.

Today we don't race chariots, but we do play polo. In polo the horses sprint, shove and spin around sharply. The horses stay running straight while the riders lean out, swinging a mallet to try and hit the ball. The game is so rough and intense that fresh horses are brought into the game every few minutes!
Why horses, not Zebras?
Horses are bigger than people so why can we control them? Fortunately, the instincts of a wild horse match the needs of humans. Horses are strong, hard working, easy to feed and they understand subtle commands.

Horses live in family groups and follow a herd leader. This behaviour protects them from predators in the wild, but also makes it easier for humans to train them. Instead of hitting a horse and making it frightened into obedience, trainers will chase a naughty horse away. The horse doesn't like being alone, so it will want to do the right
thing to be allowed to come back and stay with the family herd.

Instinctively, a horse wants to form friendships. If a horse
cannot bond with another horse, it will seek friendships
with other animals. That helps horse make close
friendships with humans.
Healing Horses
Today, we rarely use horses for war, transport or carrying heavy loads. But more and more, horses are used for companionship and to heal people.

Sarah Smith was treated so cruelly and violently as a child that she grew up to become drug addicted, got throat cancer and was unable to make friends or cope with depression. Bu then she signed up to a therapy horse program.

Sarah was scared at first as she had no experience with horses. But the whole point of the experience was to overcome her fears. If she could learn to trust a huge powerful animal, she might trust another person again.

When the Spanish invaded the Americas 600 years ago, they brought with them modern horses. The native people, having never seen horses, didn't know what they were - they thought they were magical creatures. The Spanish used that belief to make themselves more powerful over the natives. They told the native Americans that horses were monsters.

The horse became feral over time and we now know them as Mustangs. Today Mustangs are protected, but there are so many of them in some places that they damage the landscape. The population is controlled by catching Mustangs and putting them up for adoption.
Horses naturally groom each other by scratching with their teeth. That's why it is so important to brush and groom your horse as it gains their trust and relaxes them - actually lowering their heart rate.

Male zebras fight over territory and cannot live together. Horses have no territory, they just wander and graze. So they don't fight. Also zebras bite - they actually injure zookeepers more than tigers do!

Straight away, Sarah bonded with a mare named Madonna who let Sarah feel her whole body while Sarah's eyes were closed. Soon, the pair were walking beside each other without any lead rope.

Next, Sarah put a colourful parachute on the ground as a symbol of her childhood. Madonna was calm, but another horse, Chips, jumped and ran away to the other end of the arena. Sarah suddenly realised that Chips was like the younger version of herself and she felt she needed to protect and comfort Chips the way she wished someone had done for her. Sarah walked confidently up to Chips and spoke to him softly.

"It's alright, I will never hurt you."
By Malia Barrel
The End!
I hope you liked it!
Full transcript