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A History of the World in 6 Glasses
Transcript of A History of the World in 6 Glasses
The First Symbol of Beer
Beer was an essential in the daily life of the Egyptians. It's importance made it useful and profitable in trade. The symbols used to track the taxes payed by beer contributed to the emergence and evolution of writing.
The Building of the Pyramids
The workers that built the pyramids were nourished by bread and beer. At this time, every person of every social status drank beer. It was the only safe drinking alternative to the contaminated waters.
Drinking From One Vessel After Separate Glasses are Available
Originally, beer could only be consumed through one vessel with one straw for each drinker. After separate glasses were available, people continued to drink from one vessel. This showed unity and trust between drinkers. By drinking from the same vessel, one knew that none of the other drinkers poisoned the beer.
Beer for a Wife
King Sargon of Akkad, united and ruled city-states which were enemies of the Sargon region. Beer was used as a wedding payment from the groom's family to the bride's. The amount of beer you had was a sign of wealth. If one had enough beer to pay for a wife, he had enough to take care of her.
The Myth of Enkidu
This myth tells of a wild man. After being brought to society, There, he drank beer and ate bread. After his consumption of beer, he became civilized. During this time, beer is what the civilized man drank. The intake of alcohol was considered better than none.
First Writings of Wine
Hesiod, of Greece , wrote "Wine Works and Days". His writings gave the reader advice on when to prune, harvest, and press grapes. Wine making was a very important aspect of life. This made the proper preparation of it essential.
Acanthus Changes Alliance from Athens to Sparta
Just before the harvest time of grapes, Spartan troops invaded Acanthus. Sparta and Athens were at war and Acanthus was allied with Athens. In order to save their harvest, Acanthus took a vote to change alliance. The change was approved and the grape harvest went unaffected.
The Burial of King Scorpion I
Wine was a sign of wealth. King Scorpion I was buried with 700 jars of wine. This wine was imported from a significant wine producing region: southern Levant. Only the rich could afford such lavish tombs.
Wine, as a Sign of Social Status, gets Marcus Antonius Killed.
The host of Roman Politician, Marcus Antonius, sends his servant out to get wine worthy of Antonius's status. The vintner discovers from the servant who would be consuming the wine. At the time, General Gaius Marius was looking for those against him. The vintner alerted Marius and Marius sent his men to kill Antonius. When his men did not, he killed Antonius himself
The Big Feast of King Ashurnasirpal II
The feast thrown by the King of Assyria was one of the greatest of all time. He served superfluous amounts of food. At this feast he introduced a new beverage. Instead of serving beer, his guests drank wine.
8th century BCE
Establishment of Distilled Drink Excise Ignored
The excise meant to pay debts of revolutionary war was ignored. Farmers who ignored it were served writs. When William Miller was served a writ by a marshal, a fight broke out at the marshal's party. After the skirmish, prisoners were brought to town, and then went unpunished. Though neither side one, it served to show that the federal government had power and could not be ignored.
The act was to raise revenue to pay the British money that was spent on the French and Indian War. Rum distillers organized boycotts of British imports. The Sons of Liberty worked for a break from Britain. They held meetings in distilleries.
The British Establish Supremacy at Sea
When rum was adopted by the British Navy as their favorite drink, they added lemon and lime juice to create a cocktail. Scurvy was a popular disease at sea caused by a lack of Vitamin C. Lemon and lime juice contains Vitamin C whereas beer does not. The French and Spanish did not have the vitamin in their diets. The ability of the British to fight of scurvy helped them defeat the French and Spanish fleets at Trafalgarin in 1805
Planters on Barbados discover the Use of Sugar-Making By-Products
The first English settlers to arrive in Barbados attempted growing tobacco. When tobacco didn't work, they brought over sugarcane, equipment, and expertise from Brazil. The planters learned to ferment the by-products of sugar making. This was distilled into a powerful alcoholic drink.
Christopher Columbus Brought Sugarcane from Canary Islands
Production of Sugarcane began on the Spanish Caribbean and South American mainland. African Americans were imported as slaves. Distilled drinks were traded for the slaves.
Attempt to Prohibit Coffee in Mecca
Because coffee is intoxicating, some Arab scholars argued that it was subject to the same religious prohibitions as alcohol. Kha'ir Beg put coffee on trial before legal experts. The council prohibited coffee but a few months later, higher authority in Cairo overturned the ruling.
Pope Clements VIII Approves Coffee for Christians
The problem Europeans had with adopting coffee was its associations with Islam. Shortly before his death, Pope Clements VIII was asked for the catholic church's opinion on coffee. The pope was so enchanted by the taste, that he approved it for christians.
Talk of Revolution
Denis Dederot wrote the Encyclopédie. The first volume seems to be a definitive summary of Enlightenment thinking. Dederot wrote it in Café de la Régence. After The Encyclopédie was banned, it was delivered to subscribers in secret. Coffeehouses boiled with talk of change and revolution.
Stock Market Moves into Coffeehouses
When more companies joined the stock market, there wasn't enough room for every company at the Royal Exchange. Companies decided to do business in coffeehouses. Businesses that were banned from coffeehouses ofter violations, set up what is now the London Stock Exchange.
Discovery of Gravity
During a discussion in a coffeehouse, three scholars discussed what could cause the force that holds everything to the earth. This conversation struck up curiosity and ideas in the head of Isaac Newton. Newton did much research and discovered what caused gravity. He published research in the Principia. The Principia provided a new foundation for the physical sciences.
The Chinese Reassert Themselves
When the Mongol Empire fell, enthusiasm for tea was one way for the Chinese to reassert themselves.
After the establishment of the Ming dynasty, the proper way to prepare and consume tea was elaborated. Tea was taken back to it religious roots and was intended for spiritual and bodily refreshment.
Rise of the British East India Company
Lacking direct access to China, the E.I.C. brought small amounts of "good Thea" from the Netherlands as a gift to King Charles. After winning the favor of the king, they were granted to hold the same powers of a government. Tea was imported from China to be served at meeting. It was imported on a private basis by captains and officers on company ships. Tea was the ideal commodity due to its scarcity.
Opium in China
To get back at China for an unfavorable tea trade with Britain, the E.I.C. begins selling opium to China on the black market. The silver they got in payment for the opium was used to leagaly purchase tea. The E.I.C. developed a very elaborate plan in order to keep themselves from being legally associated with Opium getting into China. The opium trade created many addicts and caused many deaths in order to maintain a supply of tea in Britain.
Tea is Discovered in India
While trying and failing to grow tea in India, it was unrecognizably growing in Assam. Though it was growing naturally, not even the best tea workers could make tea grow. It was Charles Bruce that figured out how to grow the tea. The E.I.C. rented out land for entrepreneurs to do the hard work in establishing plantations, and the Assam Company was made.
Destruction of China and E.I.C.
The methods of industrialization were applied to tea. India's success destroyed China and E.I.C. The Indian Mutiny uprising caused the abolishment of the E.I.C. India now leads in production and consumption rates of tea.
The United States vs. Forty Barrels and Twenty Kegs of Coca-Cola
After Harvey Washington Wiley got the Pure Food and Drug Act passed, he attack Coca-Cola claiming that he would investigate their caffeine content. The court case came down to whether or not Coca-Cola was misrepresenting their product. After ruling in Coca-Cola' s favor, the case was appealed. The next ruling limited Coca-Cola from using children in advertisements.
World War II
Even though Coca-Cola already had franchises in foreign nations, it was not a truly globalized drink until America joined the second world war. The company's president ensured that America's liking for the drink would grow by utilizing the military as advertisement to give themselves a patriotic look. Coca-Cola promised it's beverage to all military members anywhere for 5 cents. This method gave Coca-Cola a patriotic look. In order to escape the sugar ration of 1942, Coca-Cola used letters from officers proving that their drink was essential to the morale of soldiers. By being with the military everywhere, Coca-Cola moved into the crevices of other countries.
Coca-Cola in the Soviet Union
During the Cold War, the communist countries associated Coca-Cola with everything they saw wrong with America and democracy. But the taste of Coca-Cola was so great, that not every Soviet had the willpower to oppose it. The Soviet Union's greatest military leader, General Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, asked the Coca-Cola company to make a special version of their drink that was clear and in a bottle labeled as Russian vodka.He needed to disguise the drink so that he would not be seen with an American product.
Coca-Cola Leaves Cyprus for Israel
Israel was upset that Coca-Cola hand not yet set up a franchise in their country. When Jewish organizations in America began to boycott the drink, Coca-Cola and the Israeli government agreed to open a franchise. Israel had a bigger market that Cyprus. When Coca-Cola left Cyprus, the Arab society started their own Coca-Cola boycott.
Coca-Cola is used by Arabs to Protest
During the Iraq War, Arabs used Coca-Cola to protest America. The drink was so closely associated with America that by disrespecting the drink, they disrespected the United States. In April of 2003, while the Arab society was pouring Coca-Cola on the ground, American troops occupied Saddam Hussein's palace in Baghdad eating American food and drinking Coca-Cola.