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Music in the Third Reich

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nicole maluendez

on 5 October 2016

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Transcript of Music in the Third Reich

1945
1933
Music in the Third Reich
Degenerate Musik
Entartete Kunst: degenerate art.
Banned and seen as Jewish, Comunist and Un-German.
Degenerate artists were sanctioned.
Context
Germany vulnerable and poor after WWI.
Weimar Republic 1920s: Innovation in arts and music.
Expressionism, cultural growth: jazz an musical compositions.
Nazis use of culture as a propaganda tool.
Hitler named Chancellor in 1933.
Nazi regime censored all this modern, innovative art and music.
Objectives
Consolidate Germany, focus on national culture and nationalism.
Traditional art and music was promoted to show the values of racial purity, militarism and obdience.
Restrictions in music: had to be tonal and free of jazz influences.
Censorship
1933 Goebbles Minister of Propaganda supervised burning of books.
Less censorship regarding contemporary music at first.
Late 1930s: intensification of musical censorship.
Inaguration of an official reading panel for music and the first National Music Festival.
Entartete Musik Exhibition.
1935: Braodcasting authorities officially banned Jazz music.
1939: Jazz was allowed to survive Nazi era despite the ideological propaganda.
Many black performers and jazz musicians in exile or concentration camps.
German Opera Houses: dificult financial situation, promotors relied on conservative music to attract audience.
Austrian Composer Ernest Krenek opera: Jonny Strikes up.
Premiered in 1927, really popular, tourd through Europe and USA but finally labeled as Degenerate Music.
Atonality
"Music that lacks a
tonal
center"
Describes music that does not conform to the system of tonal hierarchies that characterizes classical European Music bewteen the 17th and the 19th centuries.
Tonal vs. Atonal: Tonal music is centered around one tonal pitch. (comfortable begging and end)
Musik
Scandals
"Even from the so called atonality, a worthwhile art can spring up if the composer remains true to his race and irreproachably creative. Pfitnerz C-sharp-minor symphony leaves behind the realms of tonality in places without one feeling somewhat negative about it" - Gerbert Gergik
By: Erik Levi
Erich Kleiber, Opera Lulu by Alban Berg (Jewish), Berlin 1934.
Hans-Heinz Stuckenshmidt expelled for enthusiastic review.
" Increasingly repressive cultural environment"
Neue Sacklickeit
: Hindemith and other germans
Paul Hindemith:
Musical Iconoclast
Closest to Krenek and Weill
Strong Influence
Lehrstruck
Berlin Hochschule fur Musik
Jewish Spouse
Gustave Havemann
Militant Leauge for German Culture
Jazz
Principal style of modernism attacked by nazi propaganda.
Integrated the ideology of racism and aesthetic opposition to modernism of nazi's same ambiguities.
1937, Reichsmusikprufstelle.
Goebbels: impossible to control masses banning popular music.
When USA entered the war, Jazz was banned for good.
Nicole Maluendez Krause
Goebbels vs Rosenberg: dominated cultural politics in 1934.
Rosenberg vs Hindemith because of Goebbels support.
Political pamphlets against Hindemith
Musik
.
Threats, terror, treason.
Nuremberg Laws 1935
Conclusion
Nazis considered personal, racial or ideological factors before even considering musical aesthetics.
Music would be attacked not by it's idioms, but for its composer and the close associations with Weimar Republic.
Modernism Music survived the Third Reich in a modified form.
Entartete Musik
Camila Soriano Sergi
Series of contradictions in German-Nazi Music
Twelve-tone system = Jewish conspiracy
Accepted un-german abstractions from Stravinsky but censored Schoenberg (Jewish)
Schoenberg: Jewish, first composer of atonal music.
Winfried Zilling: only student to pass Schoenbergian techniques trough the Third Riech.
Paul Von Klenau: 12-tone tonal tecnique.
Full transcript