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Music in the Third Reich
Transcript of Music in the Third Reich
Music in the Third Reich
Entartete Kunst: degenerate art.
Banned and seen as Jewish, Comunist and Un-German.
Degenerate artists were sanctioned.
Germany vulnerable and poor after WWI.
Weimar Republic 1920s: Innovation in arts and music.
Expressionism, cultural growth: jazz an musical compositions.
Nazis use of culture as a propaganda tool.
Hitler named Chancellor in 1933.
Nazi regime censored all this modern, innovative art and music.
Consolidate Germany, focus on national culture and nationalism.
Traditional art and music was promoted to show the values of racial purity, militarism and obdience.
Restrictions in music: had to be tonal and free of jazz influences.
1933 Goebbles Minister of Propaganda supervised burning of books.
Less censorship regarding contemporary music at first.
Late 1930s: intensification of musical censorship.
Inaguration of an official reading panel for music and the first National Music Festival.
Entartete Musik Exhibition.
1935: Braodcasting authorities officially banned Jazz music.
1939: Jazz was allowed to survive Nazi era despite the ideological propaganda.
Many black performers and jazz musicians in exile or concentration camps.
German Opera Houses: dificult financial situation, promotors relied on conservative music to attract audience.
Austrian Composer Ernest Krenek opera: Jonny Strikes up.
Premiered in 1927, really popular, tourd through Europe and USA but finally labeled as Degenerate Music.
"Music that lacks a
Describes music that does not conform to the system of tonal hierarchies that characterizes classical European Music bewteen the 17th and the 19th centuries.
Tonal vs. Atonal: Tonal music is centered around one tonal pitch. (comfortable begging and end)
"Even from the so called atonality, a worthwhile art can spring up if the composer remains true to his race and irreproachably creative. Pfitnerz C-sharp-minor symphony leaves behind the realms of tonality in places without one feeling somewhat negative about it" - Gerbert Gergik
By: Erik Levi
Erich Kleiber, Opera Lulu by Alban Berg (Jewish), Berlin 1934.
Hans-Heinz Stuckenshmidt expelled for enthusiastic review.
" Increasingly repressive cultural environment"
: Hindemith and other germans
Closest to Krenek and Weill
Berlin Hochschule fur Musik
Militant Leauge for German Culture
Principal style of modernism attacked by nazi propaganda.
Integrated the ideology of racism and aesthetic opposition to modernism of nazi's same ambiguities.
Goebbels: impossible to control masses banning popular music.
When USA entered the war, Jazz was banned for good.
Nicole Maluendez Krause
Goebbels vs Rosenberg: dominated cultural politics in 1934.
Rosenberg vs Hindemith because of Goebbels support.
Political pamphlets against Hindemith
Threats, terror, treason.
Nuremberg Laws 1935
Nazis considered personal, racial or ideological factors before even considering musical aesthetics.
Music would be attacked not by it's idioms, but for its composer and the close associations with Weimar Republic.
Modernism Music survived the Third Reich in a modified form.
Camila Soriano Sergi
Series of contradictions in German-Nazi Music
Twelve-tone system = Jewish conspiracy
Accepted un-german abstractions from Stravinsky but censored Schoenberg (Jewish)
Schoenberg: Jewish, first composer of atonal music.
Winfried Zilling: only student to pass Schoenbergian techniques trough the Third Riech.
Paul Von Klenau: 12-tone tonal tecnique.