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Transcript of Educational Psychology
*Limits are still placed
*Parents are supportive
*Allow verbal give-and-take
*Children become self-reliant
*Get along with others Chapter 3:
Social Contexts and Socioemotional Development We're going to talk about two
main theories Erikson's Theory Bronfenbrenner's Theory *Ecological Theory
*Developmentally Appropriate Education
*The Reggio Emilia Approach
*Montessori Approach Key Words: *Developed By: Urie Bronfenbrenner
*Definition: Five environmental systems that range from close interpersonal interactions to broad influences of culture.
*Five Systems Include:
*Chronosystem Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory Erikson's Theory
The developmental view of peoples lives in stages.
8 stages of development of lifespan. Microsystem:
-Spends time in setting
-Helps to construct the microsystem
Connections between microsystems
Family and school
Family and Peers
How experiences influence students and teachers
What they experience in the immediate context
The borader culture
Sociohistorical conditions of students' development Definitions: Trust vs.Mistrust Occurs in the first year of life
Trust requires warm,nurturing care giving
Outcome:feeling of comfort and minimal fear
Mistrust occurs when a child is neglected/ignored Autonomy vs. Shame
and Doubt. Occurs in late infancy and toddler.
After gaining trust child discovers
the behavior is their own.
They assert independency and realize will.
If a child is sheltered or punished too harshly they develop a sense of shame and doubt. Parenting Syles: *Authoritarian Parenting
*Coparenting *Strict and punitive
*Parents control and set limits
*"My way or the highway."
*Difficulty initiating activity Authoritarian Parenting Authoritative Parenting *Parents are uninvolved
*Child believes that the parents' lives are more important than theirs
*Not completely independent Neglectful Parenting Indulgent Parenting *Parents are very involved
*Place few limits
*Children cannot control behavior Initiative vs. Guilt (3-5yrs old) *Parents supporting each other
*Poor support places child at risk for problems
*Crucial to successful parenting Coparenting *There is a steady increase in the number of children being raised in divorced, stepparent, and busy-parent families
*The United States has the highest percentage of single-parent families than any other country
* 1 in every 4 children have lived a portion of their lives in a stepfamily by age 18
*Children in stepfamilies show more adjustment problems Fast Facts *Managers of opportunities
*Monitors of behavior
*Social initiators and arrangers Parents as Managers Industry vs.Inferiority 6-Puberty Try to find out who they are about and where their life is going.
Confronted with new rules and adult statues (ex. vocational and romantic).
They need to explore different paths to have a healthy identity or they will be confused about their identity. Identity vs. Identity Confusion (Adolescent) Involvement Intimacy vs. Isolation (early adult years) Develop positive close relationships with others.
Hazard is that one wont form an intimate relationship with a romantic partner or friend and become socially awkward. Normally involves transmitting something positive to the next generation
Includes roles such as parenting and teaching to assist the next generation.
Stagnation is feeling like you did nothing for the next generation to help. Generativity vs. Stagnation (40-50yrs) Integrity vs. despair (60-death) Older adults look back at their lives and all that they have done.
If they look back and think positively about their lives then they form a sense of integrity
They feel despair if they have a negative out look on their past. *Parents serve as gatekeepers and provide guidance
*Important role of supporting and stimulating academic achievement
*Ask direct questions and do not accept answers of "Okay" or "Fine" *Peers are children of the same age, or very close
*Linked to academic performance
*Different peer statuses include: popular, average, neglected, rejected, and controversial Peers Popular Children *"Nominated" as a best friend
*Give out reinforcements
*Self-confident (not conceited) Friendship *Receive an average number of both positive an negative feelings from other peers Average Children Neglected Children *Are not always looked at as a best friend
*Not disliked by peers Rejected Children *Hardly ever a best friend
*Actively disliked by peers Controversial Children Having friends can be developmental advantage. *Nominated as best friend
*Nominated often as disliked also Having friends who are academically oriented, socially skilled, and supportive is a developmental advantage *Developmentally Appropriate Education: Education based on knowledge of the typical development of children within an age span as well as the uniqueness of the child Schools Having delinquent peers and friends can greatly increase the risk of becoming delinquent. *The Reggio Emilia Approach: Children are encouraged to learn by investigating and exploring topics that interest them. Media and materials are available as they learn music, movement, drawing, photography, etc. Sometimes it can be a disadvantage to a child to have a friend who is several years older. Controversy in Early childhood Education *The Montessori Approach: An educational philosophy in which children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities and are allowed to move from one activity to another as they desire. *Widely adopted in private schools in the United States
*Children are given freedom in choosing activities
*Teacher acts as facilitator
*Encourages children to make decisions and become problem-solvers
*Deemphasizes verbal interaction between teacher and child and peers
*Restricts imaginative play The Montessori Approach A current controversy
in involves what the curriculum
for early childhood should be.
One side are advocates for child centered, constructivist approach.
The other side are advocates for an academic, direct approach.
Many Early childhood education programs include both approaches. *Provides young children from low-income families with experiences that will help with future success
*Funded by the Federal Government
*Teachers use developmentally appropriate practices
*Less-likely to drop out of school, being in special education, and living off of welfare
*Not all created equal Project Head Start This transition can be stressful because it coincides with many other developmental changes.
Students are beginning puberty
They have increased concerns about their body image.
They are becoming more independent from their parents and spending more time with friends,.
change in classroom size, impersonal school. Middle school or junior high Transitions Elementary school
they interact and develop with new significant others.
A concern about early elementary school classrooms is that they not proceed primarily on the basis of negative feedback.
Children's self esteem is higher when they begin elementary school than when they complete it. As students move from elementary to middle or junior high school, they experience the top-dog phenomenon Learn to master knowledge and intellectual skills.
Danger is developing a sense of inferiority, unproductiveness, and incompetence. *Critics stress expectations are too low
*Many students graduate with inadequate reading, writing, and mathematical skills
*22.1% drop-out rate in 2006
*Programs provide tutoring, counseling and mentoring to help keep students in school
*Participation in extracurricular activities help also Improving America's High Schools ????????? Questions The children start to experience a widening social world and to cope with that they need purposeful behavior that involves initiative.
Develop guilt feelings if they are irresponsible or too anxious.