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Decades Project- History
Transcript of Decades Project- History
The Decades Project
By: Kezia, Dimitra, and Erin
Science and Technology
Hale- Bopp comet passes the sun on April 1, 1997
Development of biodegradable products
Comet Shoemaker- Levy9 or 'String of Pearls' broke apart and struck Jupiter around July 16- 22, 1994 at a speed of approx. 60 km/h
Global warming becomes a serious issue in the 90s
DNA starts to be widely used in criminal law
CD Rom's became popular in 1993
Internet Explorer was created in 1995
Before cell phones, pagers were extremely popular in the 90s
Hotmail is launched on July 4, 1996 after email becomes popular
The first MP3 player is debuted in Asia in March 1998, called the MPMan
CD burner drive are created
Digital cameras are more available
Intel's first P5-based microprocessor is released on March 22, 1993 to great reviews (is called the Original Intel Pentium)
GPS (Global Positioning System) becomes fully operated
Top 20 Movies of the Decade:
1. Schindler's List
3. Saving Private Ryan
4. Pulp Fiction
5. Silence of the Lambs
8. Shawshank Redemption
9. Malcolm X
10. American Beauty
11. Dances with Wolves
12. Forrest Gump
13. Sling Blade
16. The Usual Suspects
17. The Sixth Sense
18. Reservoir Dogs
19. Barton Fink
20. Boyz 'N the Hood
Top 10 T.V. Shows:
3. The Fresh Prince of Bel- Air
4. Saved by the Bell
5. Home Improvement
6. Boy Meets World
7. Full House
8. Dawson's Creek
9. Power Rangers
10. Beevis & Butthead
Top 20 Songs of the Decade:
1. Smells Like Teen Spirit- Nirvana
2. One- U2
3. I Want It That Way- Backstreet Boys
4. I Will Always Love You- Whitney Houston
5. Vogue- Madonna
6. Baby Got Back- Sir-Mix-a-Lot
7. Baby One More Time- Britney Spears
8. Waterfalls- TLC
9. Losing My Religion- R.E.M.
10. Nothing Compares 2 U- Sinead O'Connor
11. Jeremy- Pearl Jam
12. You Oughta Know- Alanis Morissette
13. Nuthin But a G Thang- Dr. Dre/ Snoop Dogg
14. Vision of Love- Mariah Carey
15. Under the Bridge- Red Hot Chili Peppers
16. Can't Touch This- MC Hammer
17. Say My Name- Destiny's Child
18. Enter Sandman- Metallica
19. Sabotage- Beastie Boys
20. MMMBop- Hanson
Fashion changed throughout the decade.
Early 90's: Continuation of 80's fashion
Flannel, loose fitting
Navy blue blazers
Acid wash denim jackets
Straight leg jeans
Mid 90's Fashion
Brown leather jackets
Pullover baseball jerseys
Neon coloured shoes
Oversized baseball jackets and bomber jackets
Tracksuits and overalls
Tight fitting trousers
Denim button-down shirts
T-shirts and black leather jackets
Baby doll dresses
Matching jean and denim jackets
Floral dresses and skirts
Conch shell necklaces
Chunky wedge heel shoes
Labels such as YSL, Guess, Gucci and Armani were popular
Late 90's Fashion
Dresses with belts
Flats, Keds, Converse and Chuck Taylors
T-shirts with Disney characters
Wide leg pants
Baseball caps worn backwards
Khaki cargo pants
Old Navy, Adidas, Reebok, Hitec and Nike were popular
Pastels and fleece
Low rise jeans
Baggy and capri pants
Cut-off denim shorts
* Grunge Fashion *
The grunge fashion statement or 'rejection fashion' started because of the influential grunge/alternative rock music that were popular in the early 90's.
Here are some characteristics of the grunge style:
Tattoos and body piercings
Casual chic look (t-shirt and jeans)
Recycled styles from previous decades
Influential and Media Sought Figures
Lead singer of Nirvana
Said to be the spokesperson of Generation X
Very influential grunge figure
Died circa April 5, 1994 at his home, age: 27
Cause of death is deemed a suicide (due to family history)
Had very poor health his whole life (eg. chronic stomach issue)
Married to Courtney Love
Was a drug addict
Is a member of the '27 Club'
Lady Diana (Princess of Wales)
A part of the Spencer family in England
Was married to Prince Charles until their divorce on July 15, 1996
Had two sons: Princes Harry and William
Injured in a car crash on August 30, 1997
Died at La Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital in France on August 31, 1997
Hibernia Oil Field
* One of the biggest changes of the 90's was the worldwide growth of internet users. The internet was initially created in the 1960's for military communication.
Fun Fact: It was estimated that at the end of the decade a new person would log onto the internet every 1.6 seconds!
Hibernia's platform was the first of its kind
Platform is designed to out stand the impact of a 1 million tonne iceberg
In June, 1997, Hibernia is towed into place (315 km SE of Newfoundland)
Confederation Bridge is opened on May 31, 1997
Joins Prince Edward Island to New Brunswick
Is 12.9 km in length
It was the longest bridge over ice-covered waters in the world
Was a former NFL player
Inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1985
Also had a career in acting and sports commentary
Charged for the murders of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman in 1994
Is currently in jail for 12 counts including armed robbery, kidnapping and criminal conspiracy
People vs. Simpson
The 'Trial of the Century'
On June 12, 1994, Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman were found dead at Nicole's condominium in Los Angeles. The victims were acquaintances, and Goldman was returning a pair of sunglasses that were left at a restaurant (Mezzaluna) earlier that day. Nicole was found with her neck nearly severed from her body, and Goldman was stabbed approx. 30 times. The persecutor is known to have entered the scene from the back entrance of the condo. Nicole's ex- husband Orenthal James (O.J.) Simpson was automatically charged with the double murder case.
The two victims
Left: Ronald Goldman, Right: Nicole Brown Simpson
After going through the task of finding and arresting the 'fled' Simpson, on July 22, 1994, O.J. Simpson pleads 'not guilty' to the double murder of his ex-wife and acquaintance.
O.J. Simpson's mug shot
The trial began on January 24, 1995 and lasted for over 133 days. During the trial, there was a total of 72 witnesses for the prosecution, which were split into two groups. The first group consisted of Nicole and O.J.'s friends, Nicole's relatives, and a 911 dispatcher. The second group had officers of the LAPD, limo driver Allan Park, and Kato Kaelin. Each group of witnesses tried to show that Simpson had intended to kill Nicole. Allan Park had stated that he drove to Simpson's house at 10:25 p.m. to take him to the airport, where he'd await his trip to Chicago. However, when he rang on the doorbell, there was no answer. At around 11:00, he noticed that a shadow of a person who fits Simpson's descriptions entered the house via the driveway. A few minutes later, Simpson emerged from the house, carrying a black bag, which he refused to let Park see. This is an example of what the prosecutions testimonies were. At this time, Simpson testified that he was practicing his golf stroke in his backyard, yet the police found that Simpson used his car's cell phone to call his girlfriend at 10:03, which didn't seem to make sense. The prosecution then tied Simpson directly to murders, stating that his blood sample was the only one to match that of the crime scenes, and also with the fact that they found samples of Nicole's blood on two black socks that were found in Simpson's home.
Born August 20, 1990
Was a beauty pageant contestant
Started participating in pageants at the age of 4
Daughter to John and 'Patsy' Ramsey
Had a brother named Burke
Murdered in her home on December 25, 1996 aged: 6
JonBenet Ramsey Murder Case
On December 25, 1996, six year old JonBenet Ramsey was found dead in her Boulder, Colorado home. The girls body was found by her father John Ramsey, in the basement of their house. She was discovered with a blanket over her and her mouth duct taped. Later, the investigators found out that she had been strangled to death with a cord.
On the morning of the murder, Patricia 'Patsy' Ramsey (JonBenet's mother) found a ransom note stating that the writer wanted $118,000 from John Ramsey, who was a wealthy business man. The note was very specific in orders, and stated that if any of the instructions were overlooked, then the girl would die. Realizing that her daughter wasn't in her room (which was on the floor below hers and Johns), she called the police, saying that her daughter was 'missing'.
Part of the ransom note that 'Patsy' Ramsey found in her home.
Many hours after the police came, they went on a search around the house to see if anything was unusual or if there were any signs of a forced entry. They went to the basement and found the girls body approx. 8 hours after JonBenet was deemed missing. They found no signs of forced entry, which led the police to believe that someone from the immediate family killed her. In reality, the Ramsey's hosted a Christmas party a few days before the murder, allowing approx. 400 people into their house. Also, the Ramsey's left their doors open, which meant that there would be no need for a forced entry. Later on, the investigators learned that there was a broken window that led to the basement in the house. They believe that the perpetrator entered the house through there, as opposed to the front door.
The Ramsey's were officially removed as suspects in 2008 when the DNA found on JonBenet's body was found to belong to an unidentified male. To this day, we still don't know who JonBenet's killer is, and due to the polices' handling of the case, we may never know.
In 2006, John Mark Karr confessed to killing JonBenet in Thailand. However, the story that Karr told was inaccurate to the autopsy, and 'his' ex-wife stating that Karr was visiting his children in Alabama during the Christmas holidays of 1996.
Interesting Fact: JonBenet's murder was the only one that happened in Boulder that year.
John Mark Karr
Lead singer of Queen
Real name is Farrokh Bulsara
Died of bronchopneumonia and AIDS on November 24, 1991
Publicized his disease one day before he died
Was a huge 'gay icon' (since he was bisexual)
Never married, however at the time of his death, he lived with his HIV positive partner Jim Hutton for 6 years
Here are some notable natural disasters from the 90s:
1994 Northridge Earthquake
Happened on January 17
A 6.7 earthquake on the Richter scale
Lasted approx. 10-20 seconds
Occurred in Reseda, an area of Los Angeles
Killed 57 people
Injured over 8,700
One of the costliest natural disasters in U.S.A history
Costed $20 billion
Canadian Politics and Events
The Oka Crisis went from July 11 to September 26, 1990. It was a land dispute between the Mohawk people in Kanesatake and the town of Oka, Quebec. The crisis was the first well-publicized violent conflict between Natives and the Canadian government. The town of Oka wanted to expand a golf course and residential development onto sacred Mohawk land. Protecting their land, the Mohawks set up a barricade and July 11, the Quebec police force (provincial) attacked the barricade, killing Corporal Marcel Lemay. Then, the Surete du Quebec (provincial police force) decided to build there own barrier in accordance to the Mohawks and the Warriors, who joined in the fight. When neither side was willing to give up, the Canadian Armed Forces were sent in by Robert Bourassa. The barricades were torn down on September 26, 1990 and the golf course expansion was canceled by the major of Oka.
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Formed August 16, 1992
A category 5 storm that hit the Bahamas and U.S.A
Killed 65 people
Dissipated on August 28 (lasted for 12 days)
4th most intense hurricane to hit the U.S.A
3rd costliest hurricane to hit the U.S.A
Cost= $26.5 billion
1993 Federal Election
The Federal election in 1993 altered canadian politics drastically. The PC party which had been government dropped to have two seats in the House of Commons, as well as the NDP going from 44 to 9 seats. The two regional parties; Bloc Quebecois and the Reform party are considered major political parties. The Liberals managed to stay in the same vicinity that they were before.
The North American Free Trade Agreement was enacted on January 1, 1994. This allowed there to be a free trade zone within Canada, the U.S.A and Mexico.
The 1995 referendum occurred because of the collapse of the Meech Lake Accord (1987). The accord was numerous proposals from Quebec, stating that the province was distinctive in Canada among other things. Once this happened, Quebec launched itself into a separatists movement, and from that, the Premier of Quebec Jacques Parizeau set the date of October 30 as the referendum. When the results came in, Canada had chosen to remain as one with a shockingly close vote of %50.58 to %49.42. A total of 4671008 people voted in the referendum.
International Politics and Events
Ethiopian Civil War
After nearly 17 years, the Ethiopian civil war ends on May 21, 1991. It started on November 28, 1974, after 'Bloody Saturday', where the Eritrean PMAC's leader General Aman died. The majority of the war was fought by Eritrea and Tigray, and in 1991, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) which consisted of rebel groups who formed into a coalition, overthrew the government, which ended the war.
The Cold War ended in 1991, and lasted for approx. 44 years. The war focused on the relationship between Russia (USSR) and the U.S.A, and caused many issues such as the Cuban Missile Crisis and the Vietnam War. The USSR and U.S.A never fought head to head in the dispute so to speak, however in the Vietnam War (for example) pro-communist North Vietnam fought South Vietnam, who were anti-communist and were being supplied by the U.S.A as North Vietnam was by the USSR. The war ended due to many factors such as economic issues, and it marked the end of the Soviet Union.
Dissolution of the Soviet Union
With the end of the Cold War also came the dissolution of the Soviet Union, or USSR. The USSR had been ruling Russia and other regions since 1922 after the Bolsheviks (communists) won the Russian Civil War. The Soviet Union had such characters as Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin lead them while in power, and the USSR dissolved officially on December 25, 1991.
Russian Constitutional Crisis
In 1993, Russia had a constitutional crisis that was against President Boris Yeltsin and the Supreme Soviet of Russia. This was a ten day conflict which went from September 21 to October 4, 1993. The conflict became the deadliest single street fighting event in Moscow's history since the October Revolution in 1917. According to government estimates, 187 people died, and 437 were wounded. The crisis ended on October 4, when Boris Yeltsin ordered for the Russian White House to be shelled and/or 'stormed'. The result of this outburst was that the Supreme Soviet of Russia was disbanded.
During the 90s there was a lot of events regarding the LGBT community. In case you don't know what that stands for it's Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender. Here are some of the major events:
- Founding of Queer Nation
- President (George H. W. Bush) signs Hate Crimes Statistics bill that includes anti-gay violence
- "Longtime Companion" in the movie theaters
- Gay and Lesbian Victory Fund established
- First major US publicly held company (Lotus) extends partner benefits
- Dorothy Allison's Bastard Out of Carolina
Amy Fisher and Joey Buttafuoco-
Amy was 17 years old when she went to see Joey Buttafuoco, a thirty-six year old mechanic. Amy fell in love with Joey and Joey started cheating on his wife with her. Since she was so in love, she was willing to do anything he asked, including killing his wife. Amy went to their house and shot his wife, Mary Jo, in the face. Luckily Mary Jo survived although she is deaf in her left ear and the left half of her face is permanently paralyzed.
While he was asleep, Lorena cut of her husband John's penis. She said the reason she did it was because he cheated on her and raped her. Lorena left the apartment with the severed penis, drove a short while, then rolled down the car window and threw the penis into a field. Lorena stopped and called 911. After an exhaustive search, the penis was located, packed in ice, and taken to the hospital where John Bobbitt was being treated.
The penis was reattached by Doctors during a nine-and-a-half-hour operation.
Nancy Kerrigan/Tonya Harding-
They were both figure skaters competing in the 1994 Olympics. Nancy was leaving an arena where she was practicing when she was struck in the leg with a crowbar. Her leg was only bruised and not broken so she made a full recovery. The man who struck Nancy was Shane Stant, a man hired by Tonya Harding's ex-husband. Both the girls competed in the Olympics, but neither won gold.
Bill Clinton and Monica Lewinsky-
Bill Clinton was accused of having sexual encounters with Monica. The accusations began January 19th, 1998 and Bill denied them. He deined them up until on August 17, 1998, that he had had an "improper physical relationship" with Lewinsky.
- Williamson County (TX) denies Apple tax breaks due to its domestic partner policy
- First law to protect lesbian/gay students in public schools
- Deborah Batts is named federal judge- the first openly gay person to be appointed
- American Medical Association opposes medical treatment to 'cure' homosexuals
- President signs executive order forbidding the denial of security clearance due to homosexuality
- Defense of Marriage Act passes the U.S. Congress
- 1.2 million people visit the AIDS Quilt in Washington
- Employment Non-Discrimination Act defeated in U.S. Senate (50-49)
- Defense of Marriage Act signed by the President
- First U.S. President to address gay organization (HRC)
- Ellen comes out in T.V. sitcom
- Hawaii compromises on same-sex marriages by domestic partnerships
- New Hampshire and Maine pass gay rights laws
- Maine rescinds state's gay non-discrimination statute
U.S. president from 1993- 2001
Was the Governor of Arkansas from 1979- 1981 and again from 1983- 1992
Married to Hillary Clinton
Involved in a scandal with Monica Lewinsky in 1998
Impeached as president following the scandal
Amy Fisher and Joey Buttafuoco
Lorena and John Bobbitt
Tonya Harding and Nancy Kerrigan
Bill Clinton and Monica Lewinsky
Hairstyles for Men:
Dark hair and blond spikes
Hairstyles for Youth:
Collar length curtain hair
Shaggy surfer hair
Buzzed, short hair
Headbands and scrunchies
Hairstyles for Women:
Straight smooth hair
Short, fringe haircuts
Black nail polish
Glitter for eyes, lips and cheeks
Pale matte skin foundation (lighter than skin tone)
Mid- Late 90's:
Natural, matte make-up
Light pink and brown shades
Light shade on lid, dark in crease and highlighter on browbone
Dark eyeliner on top lid
Liquid foundation and powder
Deep red lipstick for evening
Creamy blush (pink, dusty rose)
Brown or black mascara
Bare face/no make-up look during late 90's
Moisturizer and concealer
Foundation on eyelids
The Rwandan genocide was a terrible event that occurred from April 6 to mid July 1994. Firstly, in Rwanda, there is three ethnic groups: the Hutu which made up approx. 85% of the country, as well as Tutsi (14%) and Twa (1%). The genocide started because of tensions within the different ethnic groups. Hutu extremists in Rwanda as well as political figures blamed the Tutsi for these pressures as well as others (such as political pressures, etc.). All of these ideologies were started by then-President Habyarimana, who was killed when his plane was shot down on April 6. Violence broke out immediately after the word of this accident was released. Hutu extremists killed politicans and what is estimated to be three quarters of the entire Tutsi population, killing a total of approx. 800,000 people in about 100 days. The genocide ended with the victory of the Tutsi-dominated rebellion group Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) against the Hutu. When victory was reached, President Paul Kagame came into power. The genocide could have been prevented by political leaders in other countries such as the U.S.A, however they ignored the signs and therefore didn't get involved in the genocide
Kerri Strug was a 17 year old American athlete who participated in the 1996 Atlantic Olympic games. She competed in the gymnastics vault with her team. On her first vault, she landed wrong and injured her left ankle. Unaware of the severity of her injury, she continued to do her second vault, when she went last in her category. She completed the vault, and landed on her right leg only. She ended up winning the gold medal for her team. Her dedication and determination was observed by millions of spectators and the footage from the games were used in multiple commercials, etc
Here is the footage from the 1996 Olympics:
Columbine High School Massacre
On April 20, 1999 in Littleton, Colorado, the event known as 'Columbine' occurred. Two senior students: Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris committed the deadliest high school massacre in U.S history. The two persecutors had been victims of bullying, and this is what people believe initiated the massacre. They also had a gun collection and were learned how to make explosives, all of which were used in the event. At 11:19 a.m., the attack started. Originally commencing in the West Staircase of the school, it then moved into the library, where the majority of the murders happened. Ending at 12:08, a total of 12 students, 1 teacher and and 2 persucutors had died in the massacre. (The persecutors committed suicide.
The biggest mistake that the prosecution did was make Simpson try on a pair of bloody gloves that were found in his home. Despite the fact that they spoiled a piece of evidence, the gloves didn't fit and Simpson had to aquitt, which is where the 'famous' line "If it doesn't fit, you must acquitt' came from.
After the prosecution, the defendants, or the 'Dream Team' (as the press called them) took the stand. Their strategy was to try to show that Simpson was incapable (physically) to commit the crimes and that the evidence wasn't accurate.
The 'Dream Team' consisted of Simpson's close family: his first daughter Arnelle, who took to the stand on July 10, 1995 as well as his and mother. His doctor Robert Huizenga was also a part of the 'team'.
Once the closing statements ended, the jury had found O.J. Simpson not guilty of committing the double murders of his ex-wife and Ronald Goldman. The case had beaten Charles Manson's trial and became the longest jury trial in California history. It cost $15 million to try Simpson. Eventually, Simpson was found to be responsible for the wrongful cause of the two victims' death, and was forced to pay both compensatory and punitive damage charges costing $33.5 million in total.