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Cause and Consequence

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Rhiannon Campbell

on 6 September 2018

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Transcript of Cause and Consequence

Cause and Consequence
Historical Thinking
The Big 5 Concepts
Big 5
Historical Thinking

We'll be using these concepts throughout each unit of the course to analyze and interpret history and develop our own historical understanding.
PLUS - you'll be using these 5 concepts to create your first assignment in History and English class this semester (
more on this later
) - so let's explore!

Historical Evidence
Continuity and Change
Historical Significance
WHY do people study history?
Our Big 5 Historical Thinking
Concepts - an overview
1. SIGNIFICANCE – explaining why something is important
2. EVIDENCE - how we know what we know
3. CONTINUITY AND CHANGE - understanding that certain things (attitudes, processes, actions) change over time and certain things remain the same
4. PERSPECTIVE – identifying events from the viewpoint of people who lived through the times
5. CAUSE AND CONSEQUENCE – understanding the relationship between events and their results
Events, people or developments have historical significance if they resulted in change - that is, if they had deep consequences, for many people, over a long
period of time.
Ways to tell if something is significant
People at the time thought it was important
It affected a lot of people
It affected people deeply
It affected people for a long time
It still affects attitudes or beliefs today
It led to other important events
Grab a partner
Grab paper and a pen, your laptop, or your phone...
RANK the following events in order from MOST to LEAST significant
Remember to think about historical affects as well as your own opinion!
Time to test out your ability to judge
Historical Significance!
RANK the following:
Sandy Hook school shootings
invention of the internet
Kate and William give birth to the future King of England
USA elects Obama president
Boston Marathon bombings
Kim births baby North West
invention of Facebook
Osama bin Laden is killed
Miley Cyrus twerking on MTV
Gay marriage becomes legal in Canada
PEI's confederation bridge is built
What makes something
important in history?
Mayor Ford smokes crack
Birth of rock n' roll
Reality TV is created
Canada becomes officially multicultural
opening of Frank J. Hayden S.S.
MLK's "I have a dream" speech
Terry Fox runs to end cancer
all Canadian women get the right to vote
NASA lands on Mars
BP oil spill
Hurricane Katrina
invention of the telephone
Japanese Fukushima nuclear disaster
WHAT is history?
HOW do they do it?
The key to studying history?
Develop your ability to
the right questions
and know how to
the answers!
Events don't change, but our understanding
and interpretation of them does.
Next, form a group of 4 with a pair from another table group!
Discuss your rankings, come to a consensus and record your final ranking on chart paper
Be prepared to present your final list AND justify your top choices!
Extend your thinking...
Come up with 8 significant events/moments from your/ your family's history
Try to rank them based on their significance!
(Hint: This will help you with your first history assignment!)
Is this historical evidence?
Why is this historical evidence?
How does it work as evidence?
What does it show us or help us understand?
Is this historical evidence too?
If that's true... then is this also historical evidence?
a stretch, yes... but could even this video
work as historical evidence?
how we know what we know about the past; what we can examine and analyze in order to answer historical questions; how we put together our own historical understanding.
In your group, read the 2 sources you have been given and record your answers to the following:
How are the accounts different? How are they similar?
Which source do you like better? Why?
What are the PROS and CONS for each source?
Which source is better for studying and understanding history? Why?
be prepared to share your responses!
2 types of sources!
Truthfully, both sources are useful - each has its pros and cons that need to be carefully noted and examined.
so then... what makes a GOOD historical source?
in your groups, think about what kind of PROBLEMS could arise with any historical source?
Issues with sources
2 Types of Sources
Primary Sources
created at time of the event/subject being studied OR
by people who were original observers of/participants in the event/topic.
source is original and direct
... examples?
Secondary Sources
interprets and analyzes primary sources.
one or more steps removed from the original event
might contain primary sources
usually express an opinion
... examples?

Could be
: letters, diaries,
journals, newspapers, film
footage, speeches, poems,
artwork, clothing, furniture,
buildings, music, novels, etc.
though is not
what it is, but
it was made!!!


Could be
: Textbooks, magazine articles, histories, criticisms, commentaries, encyclopedias, recreations, interpretations, etc.
But remember!
it was
made is still the

written in 2013 about your great-grandfather's experience in WW1 is a secondary source!
so then, if historical evidence is basically like playing the game telephone...
how do we TRUST a source?

Strategies to find historical evidence in historical sources:
Make connections to other sources (compare! contrast! what is true?)
You have them... which
is which?
Make observations (what is this? what kind of source is it?)
Ask questions (who made this? when? why? how? where?)
Make inferences
Contextualize (keep the time period in mind)
Develop questions for further inquiry
For example... what are the potential problems with each source?
When we talked yesterday - what are some of the ways we agreed
we could learn about or study history?
So, while both
sources have
issues, historians favor using
because they are direct and original. They are the
closest to the actual event that you can study!
Let's put your knowledge of
sources to the test!
The Mystery of the Crucified Soldier
Canada's Golgotha
So did it really happen?

a) In your groups, examine the evidence. Decide what sources are PRIMARY, and which are SECONDARY

b) Consider the source's issues (reliability, accuracy, etc.)

c) Make a decision - based on the evidence... was a Canadian soldier really crucified in WW1?
The Conclusion?
While there is still much debate on the issue,
historians tend to agree that the story of the
crucified Canadian soldier is purely fiction,
created to enrage the public, dehumanize the
Germans, and bring support to the war effort
Canada's Golgotha was a small bas-relief sculpture made by Derwent Wood, a British artist, in early 1919 (after the end of WW1). It was 32 inches high and 25 inches wide (80cm x 60cm). It depicts a Canadian crucified to a wall, being mocked by German soldiers. When it first appeared, the German government demanded either an apology or proof of the act.

Understanding that certain things (attitudes, processes, actions) change over time and certain things remain the same; how and why do things change over time, how and why do they stay the same, and is the change positive or negative?
How do we see change
a) Examine the series of photos you have been given as a group. Try to put them in chronological order from oldest to most recent.
b) Use the photos to create a list of key
features that helped you organize your
ordering system.
So... what did you
come up with? What
key features of the
telephone helped you
decide the chronological
What do these features tell you
about the
(what stayed
the same) and
of the telephone over time?
So, how can we make sense of the complex flows of history?
Find the chronology - the sequencing of events (a timeline)
Identify the patterns, pace and turning points (the process - what are the changes, what remains similar?)
Evaluate the process - did it result in progress or decline? (or both? there may be many answers for different groups)
but, why do we need to think about
changes over time when we already
know they exist?
Let's look at the impact of continuity and change over time by examining the small town of Hampton, New Brunswick between 1867 and 2007.
Use the organizer you've been given to record the thoughts of your group as we examine the photos from Hampton.
So... to what degree was there continuity and to what degree was there change during this time?
Why is this important?
Do you feel that change resulted in progress or decline? Explain.
Let's examine the change and continuity in Burlington over time!
With a partner, use your laptop or phone to search the photos in the
Burlington Public Library Archives
: http://images.burlington.halinet.on.ca/search
a) Search any area of
Burlington you choose!
(Guelph Line, Appleby, or
Burlington in general)
Search through the years (you can go back as far as the 1700s!) and complete the chart comparing different aspects of life in Burlington over the years! (society, technology, economy, environment)
Understanding the relationship between events and their results; analyzing the impact and result of events.

Create a HEADLINE for the following photo:
a) create a
for the following photo
b) come up with a
caption explaining WHY
this happened, and what the
end result
Now think, does your headline explain WHY this event happened? Does it
also explain the end result?

Probably not... and yet, these things are very important!
What did you come up with???
Types of causes:
Long term

- dating back far in advance of the event
Short term
- occurring near or close to the event
Intentional cause
- purposeful
Unintentional cause
- accidental
Immediate/Primary cause
- the largest and most important cause
Secondary cause
- small causes that have resulted in the event
Chain Reactions!
With a partner, go back to our original list of Historically Significant events. Choose 3 events that stand out to you (for any reason!) For those events, think of:
. (at least) 3 possible causes leading to the event
. (at least )3 potential consequences of the event
Consequences are the RESULTS or EFFECTS of an action or condition - either desired or not.
Put it to the test!
With a partner, examine our list of 25 events. Create a mind map of the following:
b. Choose 1 other event and explain how a different cause would have changed the event
how a different consequence could have occurred.
a. Choose 8 events that you think are LINKED through cause or consequence. Connect and explain those links on your mind map. .
Keys to examining and understanding cause and consequence:
a. there are
MULTIPLE consequences
(a complex web!)
Remember! A consequence does NOT only refer to
a negative result. Consequences can be positive!
events are not inevitable
(change one thing, and everything could have been different!)
d. there are often
(people can't predict everything that's going to happen)
2 factors
cause events:
historical actors
(the people) and
historical conditions
(social, political, economic, cultural time period)
b. causes
vary in importance
(some are big! some very small)
something happens
For example.... Think about the causes and consequences:
3. Are there any unknown consequences?
1. How many types of causes could you identify?
2. What are the known consequences?
What is the PRIMARY cause?
What is a SECONDARY cause?
1. What are the causes for Halloween?
2. What are the consequences?
are the
WHY things happen,

are the results
(positive or negative)
Celebrating Halloween
Arachne becomes a spider

Use one colour to represent the CAUSES of your event.
Use another colour to represent the CONSEQUENCES of your event.
Use another colour for your main event!

Use different sizes for each link to represent the importance of each cause or consequence!

Staple them all together to your main event to create your chain!
Chain Reaction!
Full transcript