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Independent & Dependent Clauses: Subordination And Coordinat

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ylliana ferral

on 10 June 2016

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Transcript of Independent & Dependent Clauses: Subordination And Coordinat

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Independent & Dependent Clauses: Subordination And Coordination
PARALLELISM:HOW TO WRITE AND IDENTIFY PARALLEL SENTENCES?
Using parallel sentences make writing clearly, intelligently, efficiently.


Don't mix:
forms
tenses
passive and active voices

VERB TENSE&SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
In the present tense,to make a verb singular, we usually add an
's'
or
'es'
while to make a noun singular we remove 's'.
In the past tense regardless of whether the subject is singular or plural,the verb form stays the same.
The conjunction 'and' creates compound subject and makes the verb plural.
Conjunction 'or' and 'nor' makes verb depends on the subject which is next to the verb.
HOW TO IDENTIFY THE SUBJECT OF A SENTENCE?
When looking for the subject in a sentence, we should look for the verb and ask
'who'
or
'What'
is acting.
Simple subject:
the subject without any of its modifiers(no explanatory details). e.g. The accident...
Complex subject:
an adjective + subject
Compound subject:
e.g.George and Victoria...
Sentences can have more than one verb, more than more subject, or multiple pairs of subjects and verbs.
Conjunctions can join multiple subjects or verbs as well as independent and dependent clauses.
When you see a personal pronoun,a verb will follow,and that personal pronoun is the subject.
In a passive sentence, the subject doesn't do the action;the action instead happens to subject.
In the case of a command there won't be a subject in the sentence;instead the subject is implied- the subject is you. e.g. Be careful!



CONJUNCTIONS: COORDINATING & CORRELATIVE
Conjunction
: A word that joins other words phrases or clauses together.
Phrase
: A group of words.
Clause
:A group of words that contains a subject and a verb.
POINT OF VIEW: FIRST,SECOND & THIRD PERSON
Point of view
is the perspective from which a writer tells a story or narrative.
A good way to check the narrative in a writing is
to consider the pronouns
which are used.
An independent clause is the simplest sentence you can write.Subject+verb are enough to make a sentence.

If you want to connect two independent sentences which are closely related to each other,you can join them by a comma and coordinating conjunction or a semicolon and conjunctive adverb.
Coordinating Conjunctions:
F
or,
A
nd,
N
or,
B
ut,
O
r,
Y
et,
S
o.
I am ill so I should go to the doctor.
Or we can use some adverbs which are suitable to connect them.
Only an independent sentence can function on its own as a sentence.
Dependent Sentence
Dependent sentence isn't a completed sentence on its own.It has to be DEPENDENT CLAUSE+INDEPENDENT CLAUSE.
Subordinating conjenction connect dependent clause to independent clause. e.g. although, because, as etc.
It can also be connected like
dependent clause+relative pronouns+dependent clause
.(who,which,whom,where,that,whoos, whoever).
I lost my pencil which is blue.
Adverb clauses and noun clauses are other type of clauses which do the same thing.
We always go to the picnic when the weather is warm.

Independent Clause
SENTENCE FRAGMENTS,COMMA SPLICES & RUN-ON SENTENCES
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT:USING UNCOMMON SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUNS AND PRONOUNS
Group/collective nouns: refer to groups of things but are typically themselves are singular.e.g. team,crew
Singular verb should be used with a singular noun.
Stealth Singular Words:e.g. mathematics, physics, politics,darts,news
SENTENCE FRAGMENT
Subject and verb make a sentence completed.

SENTENCE FRAGMENT=INCOMPLETE SENTENCE
WHAT IS RUN-ON SENTENCE?
Run-on sentence=fused sentence is a sentence that's missing the right punctuation to make it flow properly.
COMMA SPLICE
Occurs any time a comma is inserted between two main clauses without a coordinating conjunction to connect them.

Most of the cats like cat food
,but
Tekir never eats cat food. (or we can use
;
)
FIRST PERSON
Writes from personal experiences.
( I, WE, ME, US)
Isn't used in academic writing.
SECOND PERSON
Writes from perspective of teaching,guiding or instructing the reader.
(YOU)
Isn't used in academic writing.
THIRD PERSON
Writes from a more generalized perspective.
(THEY,THEM,SHE,HE,IT,ONE)
Is used in academic writing.
Contains least amount of bias.
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

each,everyone,anybody,nobody,nothing,everything,someone, something,either,neither,one, other. These are used with a single verb.
EXCEPTIONS TO INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
Some indefinite pronouns always require a plural verb, just as their brethren require a singular verb.
FEW,MANY,BOTH,OTHERS,SEVERAL)
FIVE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
Can be either singular or plural, depending on the context.

M
ANY,
A
NY,
N
ONE,
S
OME,
A
LL
MEASUREMENT
When describing is percentage of portion or something, the verb depends on the thing which the portion is taking.
%60 of birthday cake is....
%60 of people...
HELPING VERBS
HAS
/
HAVE
WAS
/
WERE
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE
A phrase connected to a noun by preposition.

subject + other words + verb

We should identify the subject before deciding whether the verb should be singular or plural.
COORDINATING CONJUNCTION
Joins two or more elements of equal importance in a sentence. Our sentence should include comma before these conjunctions.

F
or
A
nd
N
or
B
ut
O
r
Y
et
S
o
CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS
Pairs of conjunctions that join two elements of equal importance in a sentence.

not only/but also
either/or
neither/nor
both/and
Mixed structure sentence
: A sentence that starts off being structured one way but switches to a different structure halfway through.

Sentence construction + Sentence construction
type 1 type 2

CATCHING THE MIXED SENTENCE ERRORS:
Read your finished essay aloud to yourself.
Read your essay backward,one sentence at a time.

SENTENCE STRUCTURE:IDENTIFY AND AVOID MIXTURE STRUCTURE SENTENCES
toefl prep.
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