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Resource Book

Exceptional Children

Arisbe Jacquez

on 3 May 2016

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Transcript of Resource Book

Page 3: Definitions
Page 4: Learning Disabilities
Pages 5-6: Intellectual Disabilities
Page 7: Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Pages 8-9: Communication Disorders
Pages 10-11: Deaf or Hard of Hearing
Pages 12-13: Blindness
Pages 14-15: Physical and Health Disability
Pages 16-17: Autism Spectrum Disorders
Pages 18-19: Severe Disabilities
Page 20: Risk for Early Identification
Pages 21-22: Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder
Page 23-24: Gifted and Talented
Table of Contents
Learning Disabilities
Learning Disability: a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations.
limitation that's inherent in individual as result of impairment
Full inclusion:
students with disabilities receive all instruction in general education classroom regardless of level/type of disabilities
Individualized Education Program:
statement of student's goals, related services and how student will be assessed.
Least Restrictive Environment:
requires students with disabilities be educated with children without disabilities to maximum extent
Related Services:
activities that enable child with disability to receive free, public education
Response to intervention:
criterion indicating student's lack of response to scientific research based intervention can be considered identifying learning disability.
F. A. P. E.:
educational right of children with disabilities in the United States that is guaranteed by the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
Individualized Family Service Plan:
a plan for special services for young children with developmental delays. Only applies to children from birth to three years of age.
A change in the input/output method used by teacher for student without changing content/conceptual level.
Child Find:
component that requires States and Local Education Agencies to identify, locate, and evaluate all children with disabilities
Universal Design:
concept that environments, instruction ans assessment should be design for everyone.
Arisbe Jacquez
Resource Book
How do individuals qualify?
Severe Discrepancy Formula and intelligence/achievement test to identify individuals with learning disabilities.
STAAR Test: To compare them to others
Teachers observations and notes

General Coordination
Specific learning disability
Emotional Lability
Disorder of Attention
Disorders of memory/thinking
Speech/hearing disorders
Teaching Techniques

Visual Aids
Multi-senory approaches
Read out loud, audio books
Large text
Reading tools
Daily Reviews
Weekly/Monthly Reviews
Direct Instruction
Intellectual Disabilities
Emotional & Behavioral Disorder
Communication Disorders
Communication disorder: includes stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment, which adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

How do individuals qualify?

Speech-Language Pathologist
Family history
Tests – Expressive/Receptive
Observational checklist
Language samples
Articulation Test
Auditory Discrimination Test
Fluency evaluation
Case History
Work samples, checklist or scales


Difficulty acquiring rules of spoken/written language
Can't summarize important details from their reading or a story told to them
Improper use of words and meanings
Teaching Techniques
Modeling what you want student to perform
Self-talk (think aloud)
Parallel talk
Call on student early so they know what to say
Voice disorder: reinforce
Misarticulations: oral examples
Fluency: stuttering modifications and fluency shaping
Echolalia: repeats words or phases
Omits or substitutes sounds when pronouncing words
Talks too soft or too loud
Resources and Organizations
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association: www. asha.org

Deaf and Hard of Hearing
Deafness: Hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing.
Hearing impairment: Impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, but that is not included under the definition of deafness.
How do individuals qualify?
Identified by medical professionals
Audiometric evaluation
Speech reception
Speech discrimination
Hearing loss must badly affect educational performance for IDEA 04 services
Spoken language may be delayed
Identify themselves as part of the Deaf community
Uses ASL as a primary means of communication
No differences in perception , learning, and memory between hearing children and those who are deaf
Written language
Teaching Techniques

Oralism: be more verbal
Speech or lip-reading
American Sign Language
Fingerspelling: 26 positions for 26 letters
Signed Exact English: ASL & manual code
Cued Speech: 36 cues to aid 44 sounds
Total Communication
Identify LRE for each student
Based on communication, language, academic and social needs
Use visuals and large-size materials.
Post transition times, rules, and menus
Use graphic organizers
National Association of the Deaf: http://nad.org/
Resources and Organizations
American Cochlear Implant Alliance :http://www.acialliance.org/
American Society for Deaf Children (ASDC):http://deafchildren.org/
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA):http://www.asha.org/

Better Hearing Institute: http://www.betterhearing.org/

How do individuals qualify?
Intelligence testing: IQ below 70-75
Sub-average general intellectual functioning
Displays deficits in adaptive behavior
Recognized before age 18
Disability affects educational performance
Severe Disabilities
Severe Disabilities: Multiple disabilities; the combination which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in programs solely for one disability.
How do individuals qualify?
Identified at birth or shortly after by physician
Neonatal screening, medical evaluations
Communication disorders diagnosed by a speech-language pathologist.
Diminished cognitive functioning affecting abstrat thinking, learning attention and memory
Significant physical, health and communication needs
Developmental delays
Self-care skills are difficult
Repetition to acquire skills
Teaching Techniques
Access to the general education curriculum
Functional skills needed and identified through ecological inventories, functional behavior assessments, and alternate assessments.
Communication; Good relationship
Motor skills
Social interaction
Prepare for transition to adult living
Massed trial teaching
Distributed trial teaching
Classroom setting (easy to move around)
Individual reward system
Assess student performance and teaching effectiveness regularly
Resources and Organizations
TASH: http://tash.org/
Helen Keller National Center: http://www.hknc.org/
Special Olympics: http://www.specialolympics.org/
JoKelly: http://www.crestwoodfw.org/jo-kelly-school.html
Center for Parent Information: http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/new-to-disability/
Center on Technology and Disability: http://www.ctdinstitute.org/
Parent to Parent USA: http://www.p2pusa.org/p2pusa/SitePages/p2p-support.aspx
Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder
AD/HD: persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is more frequently displayed and severe than is typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of development.
How do individuals qualify?
Interviews and checklists: Parents, Teachers and Child
Medical evaluation
Rating scales---Achenbach, Devereux, BASC-II, ADDES, Conners
Academic testing: KTEA-II and WIAT-II
Direct observations and data collection

Coexisting with other problems
Teaching Techniques
Clear consistent rules, classroom management
Advance organizers
Cognitive learning strategies
Direct instruction
Teach students how to think
Behavioral Intervention technique

Sitting arrangements
Peer- mediated instruction
Tone-prompt system
Resources and Organizations
Children & Adults with ADHD: http://www.chadd.org/
ADDitude: http://www.additudemag.com/resources/addvocacy.html
Attention Deficit Disorder Association : http://www.add.org/
Center for ADHD Awareness: http://caddac.ca/cms/page.php?2
LD Online:http://www.ldonline.org/
Totally ADD: http://totallyadd.com/
National Institute on Deaf and other Communication Disorders: http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/directory/
Apraxia Children: http://www.apraxia-kids.org/
National Stuttering Association: http://www.nsastutter.org/
Voice Nation: http://www.voicenation.com/resources/a-childhood-language-and-communication-disorder-guide-for-parents-and-teachers.shtml
Center for Hearing and Communication: http://lhh.org/
Intellectual Disability: significantly sub-average intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
Delayed learning in language development, vocabulary and conversation skills
Deficits in ability to transfer information
Can have high long-term memory ability
eaching Techniques
Keeping motivation and interest in task
Make environment appropriate
Incorporate curriculum which includes, life skills, development, and preparation for adult life.
Inclusive service learning
Natural, accessible environment
Talking calculator
Speech/Language Assistive Devices
Edmark Reading
Resources and Organizations
Find My Roommate: http://www.ndsccenter.org/
American Association On Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: http://aaidd.org/
The ARC: http://www.thearc.org/
Think College: http://www.thinkcollege.net/
MOSAIC: http://www.mosaicinfo.org/
How do individuals qualify?
Inability to learn, that cannot be explained by intellectual , sensory or health factors
Inability to build or maintain interpersonal relationships with peers or teachers
Inappropriate types of behavior
General pervasive mood
Serious rule violation
Aggressive or violent
Deceitfulness or theft
Language deficits
Prone to schizophrenia
Mood disorders
Issues with conduct disorder
Teaching Techniques
Positive reinforcements
Contingency contracts
Appropriate arrangement of classroom
Creative dramatics
A token economy
Play therapy
Resources and Organizations
http://www.apbs.org/new_apbs/emotion.asp x
Blindness and Low-vision
Adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness. Visual impairments including blindness are defined as vision that, even with correction
How do individuals qualify?
Infants and Toddlers: lack of visual fixation, abnormal eye movement, family history, and visual acuity
School-Age: Snellen Charts, observation Comprehensive Assessment
Have low vision of 20/70 up to 20/200 and/or legal blindness of 20/200 or worse.
Play and social interaction skills may be delayed
May have more social problems
Do not display crucial differences in language development
Succeed in the general education curriculum
Little or no effect on general intelligence

Teaching Techniques
Provide student with class notes
Read aloud while writing on the whiteboard or overhead
Supply audiotapes of print material
Allow orally recording responses
Enlarge print materials distributed to the class
Provide hands-on learning
Resources and Organizations
National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped: http://www.loc.gov/nls/
National Family Association for Deaf-Blind: http://nfadb.org/
Christian Record Services for the Blind: http://www.christianrecord.org/
American Council of the Blind: http://www.acb.org/about
Vision Aware: http://www.visionaware.org/
Physical and Health Disability
How do individuals qualify?
An other health impairment is a disorder resulting in limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, which results in limited alertness with respect to the education environment.
Traumatic brain injury is an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
An orthopedic impairment is one caused by congenital anomaly, such as clubfoot or the absence of some member; by disease, such as poliomyelitis and bone tuberculosis; and by other causes, such as cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures.
Disorder resulting in limited strength, vitality or alertness with respect to the educational environment
Traumatic Brain Injury:
Problems with coordination, walking, vision, speaking, hearing, and sustaining energy level
Problems with attention and memory
Changes in cognitive ability
Changes in temper outbursts, irritability, aggressiveness, lack of self-control

Cerebral Palsy:
Motor limitations
Vision problems
Hearing loss
Eating, feeding, and speaking problems
Intellectual disabilities
Very still
Ringing in the ears
Different type of taste, smell, or touch sensation
Aberrant behaviors
Teaching Techniques
Positively reinforcing students for appropriate behavior, prompting, provide corrective feedback as needed, and use behavioral contracts
Create an Individualized Health Plan and implement it.
Provide support for parents
Spina Bifida:
Loss of bowel and bladder control
Difficulty breathing
Difficulty swallowing
Resources and Organizations
Disability Scoop:http://www.disabilityscoop.com/
SpeciaLiving: http://www.specialiving.com/index.asp
United Cerebral Palsy: http://ucp.org/resources/resource-guide
National Center on Accessible Instructional Materials: http://aim.cast.org/learn/disabilityspecific/physical#.VT00ZyFViko
Accredited Schools Online: http://www.accreditedschoolsonline.org/resources/best-accredited-colleges-schools-for-students-with-disabilities/
Adaptive Sports Foundation
Disability Rights Advocates
How do individuals qualify?
Must be diagnosed by a licensed Physician
Must significantly affect verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction
Affects child’s educational performance
Autism: developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, evident before age three and adversely affecting a child’s educational performance. The individual often engages in repetitive activities and stereotypic movement, is resistant to environmental changes or changes in daily routines, and experiences unusual responses to sensory experiences.
Difficulty interacting with others in a social context
Rigid and restrictive behavioral repertoire and imagination skills
Difficulty communicating verbal and nonverbal
Need for routine
Deficits in theory of mind
Sometimes a Savant
Motor stereotypes
Strength in visual skills
Teaching Techniques
Individualized support and services for students and families
Systematic instruction
Clear, structured environments
Specialized curriculum content
A functional approach to problem behaviors
Family involvement
Resources and Organizations
Autism Speaks: www.autismspeaks.org
Autism Spectrum Disorder Foundation:www.myasdf.org
ASHA: www.asha.org
Center for Autism: www.semel.ucla.edu/autism/resources
Gifted and Talented
IQ of 130
Advanced logical thinking, early language development, accelerated pace of thought processes
Sensitive, self-aware, idealistic, perfectionist
Approaching tasks in a diligent manner, demonstrating superior study skills, and applying course content in a creative way
Teaching Techniques
Acceleration- involves moving the student through the curriculum at a faster pace than other students.
Enrichment- involves modifying or adding to the curriculum to make it richer and more varied.
Children and youth with outstanding talent who perform or show the potential for performing at remarkably high levels of accomplishment when compared with others of their age.
They exhibit high performance capability in intellectual, creative, and/or artistic areas, possess an unusual leadership capacity, or excel in specific academic fields. They require services or activities not ordinarily provided by the schools.
Resources and Organizations
Summer Institute for the Gifted: http://www.giftedstudy.org/
Council for Exceptional Children: http://www.cec.sped.org
Neag Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development: http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/
National Society for the Gifted & Talented: http://www.nsgt.org/educational-resources/
National Association for Gifted Children: http://www.nagc.org/
National Association for Gifted Children
Gifted Students Institute
At Risk: Early Intervention
How do individuals qualify?
Mental or physical conditions that have high probability of creating developmental delays
Birth – 2 years of age-Low motor ability, children were born deaf or blind
Any developmental delayed are-
Physical, communication, cognitive, social, emotional, and adaptive
3 – 5 years of age
Emotional/ social
And behavioral problems
Teaching Techniques
Extra exposure to foundational skills
Heavy emphasis on number sense and vocabulary
Incorporating the universal design approach early intervention/ prevention programs
Family involvement
Literacy exposure/ dialogic reading
Resources and Organizations
Full transcript