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Boyle's Law

By: Yifan, Amy, and Karen
by

Karen L

on 14 January 2013

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Transcript of Boyle's Law

Boyle's Law By: Yifan, Amy, and
Karen Theory Relation to Kinetic
Molecular Theory History Applications Meteorology Atmospheric Pressure Undersea Exploration Pressure is the force that is exerted on an object per unit of surface area; Pressure = Force/area
At constant temperatures, the product of pressure times the volume is a constant relationship
•Product of pressure and volume is exactly constant for an ideal gas
Ideal gas (a hypothetical gas made up of particles that have mass but no volume and no attractive force between them)
The volume of a fixed amount of gas at a constant temperature is inversely proportional to the external pressure on the gas; V = 1/P
Volume decreases as pressure increases
If pressure doubles, volume of gas decrease by half
You can use the equation V1P1 = V2P2 to find unknown variables Kinetic molecular theory of gases explains gas behaviour in terms of random motion of particles with negligible volume and negligible attractive forces
Shows that pressure of gas equals to external pressure Boyle studied relationship between pressure and volume of gases
Expanded on the thoughts of René Descartes, who said pressure is a result of "restless agitation" of the air particles
Boyle regarded the gas particle as a spring Syringes and turkey basters are operated by Boyle's Law: pulling back on the plunger increases the volume inside the syringe, which decreases the pressure, which then corrects when liquid is drawn into the syringe, thereby shrinking the volume again.
Spray cans, like spray paint and air freshener, are governed by Boyle's Law: intense pressure inside the can pushes outward on the liquid inside the can, trying to escape, and forces the liquid out when the cap makes an opening.
A car (combustion) engine works when the sudden increase in pressure from the combustion of the fuel expands the cylinder and pushes on the piston, causing the crankshaft to turn. Meteorologists use weather balloons filled with helium or hydrogen (because those gases are less dense than air at the same pressure) that are connected to a device called a radiosonde.
As the balloons float higher into the atmosphere, the atmospheric pressure decreases and the balloon expands.
Eventually the balloon will burst and a parachute opens and brings the radiosonde safely back to the ground.
Meteorologists have to use the relationship between gas pressure and volume (Boyle's Law) to calculate the altitude at which the balloon will burst. As divers go deeper underwater, the pressure of the ocean increases; therefore the volume of the air that the diver breathes decreases because the air takes up less space.
When divers resurface, the air expands again due to decreased pressure. If a diver resurfaces too quickly while holding their breath, it is dangerous because the air in their lungs will expand and the lungs would fill beyond capacity with expanded air. Boyle's law can be used to determine how deep someone can dive and how quickly they can come up. everythingscience.co.za mail.ciplc.org Gas molecules in the atmosphere are pulled down towards Earth's surface by gravity, and these molecules exert pressure on all objects on Earth
Definition: the force exerted on Earth's surface by a column of air over a given area Later, Torricelli hypothesized that water rose in tube because surrounding air was pushing down the rest of water.
Used a long tube filled with mercury that inverted into a dish of mercury. Mercury in tube would drop and leave a vacuum at closed end .
The atmospheric pressure exerting on surface of dish equal to the pressure exerting on the outside of the tube.
Hypothesized that weight of air might be greater near Earth's surface than top of mountain Torricelli Scientist Pascal then carried an apparatus like Torricelli's up and down the mountain, as he ascended the mountain, the column of mercury became shorter.
As altitude increases, atmospheric pressure decreases and causing shorter column of mercury. Pascal sjbscience.weebly.com Boyle proved his law using the Mercury U-Tube experiment.
He made measurements of volume of a trapped gas, the height of the trapped gas and height of the column of mercury. Height of mercury column is directly related to the pressure exerted on the trapped gas
Published Boyle's Law in 1662.
Boyle's also helped lead to the development of atomic theory through his study of gases. External pressure increases, while the temperature and number of particles stay the same
Higher external pressures, causes a lower volume with more collisions; pressure released by gas increases until it equals to the external pressure
Gas molecules are closer together and collide with each other and "wall", the average force exerted increases
Properties of gas - gases are compressible ( gas particles move independently of one another, volume of gas decreases greatly when pressure is exerted on gas) physicalgeography.net Invented suction pump Galilei faculty.sdmiramar.edu Breathing is operated by Boyle's law: inhaling air increases the volume of air in the lungs and expands them, while pressure applying on the lungs decreases; exhaling air decreases the volume and pressure exerting on the lungs increases again.
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