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Pakistan

Anissa Garcia & Savonnah Watts
by

Anissa Garcia

on 8 June 2011

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Transcript of Pakistan

Timeline What Does Pakistan Mean? By: Habib Jalib

Bread, clothes and medicine
A little house to live in
Free education, as may right be seen
A Muslim, I, too, have always been
What does Pakistan mean
There is no God, but God, The Rab-al-alameen

For American alms do not bray
Do not, the people, laugh away
With the democratic struggle do not play
Hold on to freedom, do not cave in
What does Pakistan mean
There is no God...

Confiscate the fields from the landowners
Take away the mills from the robbers
Redeem the country from its dark hours
Off with the lordly vermin
What does Pakistan mean
There is no God... Pakistan By: Anissa Garcia &
Savonnah Watts 1947 - There was a creation of a Muslim state of East and West Pakistan out of the partition of India at the end of British imperialism in August 1947.

1948 - Muhammed Ali Jinnah (the first governor general of Pakistan) dies; First war with India over disputed territory of Kashmir occurs. The Stages of Pakistan's existence 1: The Start 1956 - Constitution proclaims Pakistan an Islamic republic.

1958 - Martial law declared and General Ayyub Khan takes over.

1960 - General Ayyub Khan becomes president. 2: Military Rule 1965 - Second war with India over Kashmir.

1970 - Victory in general elections in East Pakistan for breakaway Awami League, leading to rising tension with West Pakistan.

1971 - East Pakistan attempts to secede, leading to civil war. India intervenes in support of East Pakistan which eventually breaks away to become Bangladesh.

1972 - Simla peace agreement with India sets new frontline in Kashmir.

1973 - Ali Bhutto becomes prime minister. 3: War and Succession 1977 - Riots erupt over allegations of vote-rigging by Ali Bhutto's Pakistan People's Party (PPP). General Zia stages military coup.

1978 - General Zia becomes president.

1979 - Ali Bhutto hanged for having ordered the assassination of a political opponent.

1980 - US pledges military assistance to Pakistan following Soviet intervention in Afghanistan.

1986 - Ali Bhutto's daughter Benazir returns from exile to lead PPP in campaign for fresh elections.

1988 (August) General Zia, the US ambassador and top Pakistan army officials die in mysterious air crash; Ishaq Khan takes over as acting president, and is later elected to the post. 4: Zia takes Charge 1988 (November) Benazir Bhutto's PPP wins general election.

1990 - Benazir Bhutto dismissed as prime minister on charges of incompetence and corruption.

1991 - Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif begins economic liberalisation programme.

1993 - President Khan and Prime Minister Sharif both resign under pressure from military. General election brings Benazir Bhutto back to power. 5: Bhutto Comeback 1996 - President Leghari dismisses Bhutto government amid corruption allegations.

1997 - Nawaz Sharif returns as prime minister after his Pakistan Muslim League party wins elections.

1999 (April) Benazir Bhutto and her husband convicted of corruption and given jail sentences. Benazir stays out of the country; (May) Kargil conflict: Pakistan-backed forces clash with the Indian military in the icy heights around Kargil in Indian-held Kashmir. More than 1,000 people are killed on both sides; (October) Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif overthrown in military coup led by General Pervez Musharraf.

2000 (April) Nawaz Sharif sentenced to life imprisonment on hijacking and terrorism charges; (December) Nawaz Sharif goes into exile in Saudi Arabia after being pardoned by military authorities.

2001 (June) Pervez Musharraf names himself president while remaining head of the army. He replaced the figurehead president, Rafiq Tarar, who vacated his position earlier in the day after the parliament that elected him was dissolved. 6: Politics and Corruption 2001 (December) India imposes sanctions against Pakistan, to force it to take action against two Kashmir militant groups blamed for a suicide attack on parliament in New Dehli. Pakistan retaliates with similar sanctions.

2002 (April) President Musharraf wins another five years in office. 7: Kashmir Tensions 2002 (May) Pakistan test fires three medium-range missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads, amid rumours of impending conflict with India. President Musharraf says Pakistan does not want war, but is ready to respond with full force if attacked; (June) Britain and US maintain mount offensive to avert war; (November) National Assembly elects Mir Zafarullah Jamali - a member of a party close to General Musharraf - to head a coalition government as the first civilian prime minister since the 1999 military coup. 8:Missile Tests 2003 (November) Pakistan declares a Kashmir ceasefire & India follows suit; (December) Pakistan and India agree to resume direct air links and to allow overflights of each other's planes from beginning of 2004, after a two-year ban.

2004 (April) Parliament approves creation of military-led National Security Council, institutionalising role of armed forces in civilian affairs; (June) Pakistan mounts military offensive against suspected al-Qaeda militants and their supporters near Afghan border after attacks on checkpoints, resulting in high casualties.

2005 August - Pakistan tests its first, nuclear-capable cruise missile. 9: Kashmir Ceasefire 2006 January - Up to 18 people are killed in a US missile strike, apparently targeting senior al-Qaeda figures, in the northwest.

2006 (October) Raid on an Islamic seminary in the tribal area of Bajaur bordering Afghanistan kills up to 80 people, sparking anti-government protests; (December) Pakistan says it has successfully test-fired a short-range missile capable of carrying a nuclear warhead.

2007 (January-June) Tension mounts between the government and the radical Red Mosque in Islamabad. 10: Kashmir Quake 2007 (March) President Musharraf suspends the Chief Justice Mohammed Chaudhry, triggering a wave of anger across the country. First joint protests held by the parties of exiled former prime ministers Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif.

2007 (October) Musharraf wins most votes in presidential election. The Supreme Court says no winner can be formally announced until it rules if the general was eligible to stand for election while still army chief. Nearly 200 people die in fighting with Islamic militants in North Waziristan, stronghold of pro-Taleban and al-Qaida groups. Ex-prime minister Benazir Bhutto returns from exile. Dozens of people die in a suicide bomb targeting her homecoming parade in Karachi. 11: Musharraf targets Judiciary 2007 (November) General Musharraf declares emergency rule while still awaiting Supreme Court ruling on whether he was eligible to run for re-election. Chief Justice Chaudhry is dismissed. Ms Bhutto is briefly placed under house arrest. New Supreme Court - now staffed with compliant judges - dismisses challenges to Musharraf's re-election. Nawaz Sharif returns from exile. Musharraf resigns from army post and is sworn in for second term as president. 12: Emergency Rule 2007 (December) Benazir Bhutto assassinated at election campaign rally in Rawalpindi.

2008 (March) Pakistan People's Party (PPP) nominee Yusuf Raza Gilani becomes prime minister; (May)The disgraced Pakistani nuclear scientist, Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan, says allegations he passed on nuclear secrets are false and that he was made a scapegoat. 13: Bhutto Assassinated 2008 (August)The two main governing parties agree to launch impeachment proceedings against President Musharraf, who resigns soon after. Senate Speaker Muhammad Sumroo becomes acting president.PPP leader Asif Ali Zardari - Benazir Bhutto's widower - says he will be the party's candidate in the presidential election set for 6 September; (September) Asif Ali Zardari elected by legislators as Pakistan's new president; (November)The government borrows billions of dollars from the International Monetary Fund to overcome its spiralling debt crisis. 14: Musharraf steps down 2009 (March) After days of protests, government gives in to opposition demands for reinstatement of Chief Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry and other judges dismissed by former President Pervez Musharraf; (July)The Pakistani and Indian prime ministers pledge to work together to fight terrorism at a meeting in Egypt irrespective of progress on improving broader relations. The Supreme Court acquits opposition leader Nawaz Sharif of hijacking charges, removing the final ban on his running for public office. 15: Militancy 2010 (April) Parliament approves package of wide-ranging constitutional reforms. Measures include transferring key powers from office of president to prime minister; (October) Ex-military ruler Musharraf apologizes for "negative actions" while in power, launches political party from exile in UK.

2011 (January) A campaign to reform Pakistan's blashemy law leads to the killing of two prominent supporters, Punjab Governor Salman Taseer in January, and Minorities Minister Shahbaz Bhatti in March; (March) The prime ministers of India and Pakistan meet to watch a cricket match, an occasion seen as an chance for the two nations to repair relations;(May)The founder of Al-Qaeda, Osama bin Laden, is killed by American special forces in garrison city of Abbottabad, 50 km northwest of capital Islamabad. Double suicide bombing on border guard training centre in north-western Pakistan kills 80 people. Pakistani Taliban say they carried out the attack to avenge Bin Laden's death. 16: Reform Efforts *Key Leaders
are underlined. Challenges Pakistan suffers from a number of social, political, and economic problems. With a population roughly half that of the United States in an area slightly less than the size of two California's, Pakistan is experiencing unwanted growth. While statistics indicate that the population growth rate of Pakistan may actually be decreasing, those same projections also predict that by the year 2050, Pakistan will have assumed its place as the third most populated nation in the world. But, with a rapidly growing population, there are challenges that it faces that create fluctuations. Along with political tensions, both internal and external, and an economy trapped in a cycle of debt, these all serve to prevent Pakistan from attaining the progress it needs to advance, and perhaps to survive. From the beginning, the two regions of Pakistan had stained relations. While East Pakistan had the larger population, it was often ignored by West Pakistan, home to the central govenment. Then, a giant cyclone struck East Pakistan and killed many residents. West Pakistan did not quickly transfer their aid to East Pakistan. So, demonstrations broke out in East Pakistan and protesters called for an end to all ties with West Pakistan.
On March 26, 1971, East Pakistan declared itself an independent nation called Bangladesh. A civil war followed between Pakistan and Bangladesh. By the end of it, Pakistan lost about one-seventh of its area and about one-half of its population to Bangladesh. Geopolitics E
c
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s Pakistan was originally divided as East Pakistan and West Pakistan: East Pakistan lay to the east of India and West Pakistan to the northwest. Everything about each region was very different except for the Islamic religion that united them. After the defeat from the civil war between Bangladesh & Pakistan, Pakistan's military/government had a pattern of instability. Like stated in the timeline, due to the death of Muhammad Ali Jinnah shortly after independence, the first governor-general of Pakistan, the nation was unstable without strong leadership. As a result, this left Pakistan to go through a series of military coups (the first in 1958). Ali Bhutto took control of the country following the civil war. A military coup in 1977 led by General Zia removed Bhutto. Furthermore, after Zia's death, Bhutto's daughter, Benazir Bhutto, was twice elected prime minister. After months of disorder, she was soon removed. Nawaz Sharif became prime minister after the 1997 elections. In 1999, army leaders expelled Sharif in yet another coup and imposed military rule over Pakistan. Pakistan continues to struggle from Muslim militants and ongoing disputes in India, expecially over the territory of Kashmir. Military “Pakistan’s culture is again unique like the rest of the country. Pakistan’s geography is the meeting point of South Asia, Central Asia and West Asia/Gulf. Its culture could be termed as a combination of sub continental, Islamic, Regional, English and more recently global influences. Let us consider them piecemeal. The newly born Pakistan had to have a sub continental leaning, having been a part of for last 5000 years of its civilization. However, the Indus Valley, present day Pakistan, culture was different from the rest of North India or South India”.
(Quoted Pakistan’s Identity, History and Culture, from the famous book Gwadar on the Global Chessboard by Nadir Mir). Culture All You Need to Know
About Pakistan The Breakdown Geography Land Pakistan covers a total area of 796,095 square kilometers.
The Great Highlands in the north part of the Himalayan chain. The highest point K2 (8,611 meters) is the second highest mountain in the world. [K2 stands from Karakoram range
and 2 for the second peak listed]. In the southwest, the Baluchistan Plateau is made up of mountain ranges, deserts,
and dry lakes. In the southeast, the terrain is a largely barren desert. The Indus River flows south from the Himalayas to Karachi on the Arabian Sea, forming a vast, fertile and flood
plain. R
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s The natural vegetation in Pakistan's lowlands is mostly scatted grassland and stunted woodlands.
Animal life includes bears, snow leopards, deer, and jackals.
Some natural resources include arable land, natural gas, limited oil, substantial hydropower potential, coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone.
Agriculture: Products--wheat, cotton, rice, sugarcane, eggs, fruits, vegetables, milk, beef, mutton. Population of the People Pakistan's estimated population in 2011 is over 187 million, making it the world's sixth most-populous country, behind Brazil and ahead of Bangladesh. It's annual population growth rate (2008 est.) is1.81%.
The ethnic groups consist of Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun, Baloch, Muhajir (i.e., Urdu-speaking immigrants from India and their descendants), Saraiki, and Hazara. Religion The state religion in Pakistan is Islam, which is practiced by about 95-98% of the 187,343,000 people of the nation. The remaining 2-5% practice Christianity, Hinduism and other religions. Muslims are divided into two major sections: the majority of them practice Sunni Islam, while the Shias are a minority who make up an estimated 5-20%, depending on the source. Nearly all Pakistani Sunni Muslims belong to the Hanafi Islamic law school. The majority of Pakistani Shia Muslims belong to the Ithnā‘Ashariyyah Islamic law school, with significant minority groups who practice Ismailism, which is composed of Nizari (Aga Khanis), Mustaali, Dawoodi Bohra, Sulaymani, and others. Culture Foods At its simplest, Pakistani cooking today consists of staple foods which are cheap and abundant. Wheat and other flour products are the mainstay of the diet: one familiar form being Chapati, an unleavened bread akin to a Mexican tortilla. This is made with dough prepared from whole wheat flour. Another basic food is Lassi, milk from which curds and
butterfat have been removed. The more affluent cook with
Ghee, which is clarified butter, instead of with vegetable oil. From the earliest times, the imaginative - and sometimes heavy - use of spices, herbs, seeds, and flavorings and seasonings have helped cooks transform rather ordinary staple foods into an exotic cuisine. Consider some of the most common of these in wide use in Pakistan today: chilli powder, turmeric, garlic, paprika, black pepper, red pepper, cumin seed, bay leaf, coriander, cardamom, cloves, ginger, cinnamon, saffron, mace, nutmeg, poppyseeds, aniseed, almonds, pistachios, and yogurt. Their use in a wide range of pickles, chutneys, preserves, and sauces, together with curries of all descriptions and special treatment for meats, sea, food, vegetables and lentils, gives Pakistani cooking much of its distinctive character. The Influence of Islam
on Foods Cultural influences, whether religious precepts, practices, and
ceremonies or local traditions, or even esthetic preferences, have made their contribution toward the evolution of Pakistani cuisine. The spread of Islam to what is now Pakistan, starting in the Eighth Century,
has given a basic character to the food of the people. The Quranic injunctions
against eating pork or drinking alcoholic beverages has channeled tastes and
appetites in other directions. Lamb, beef, chicken and fish are basic foods,
although their consumption by persons of low income is modest and often ceremonial. Clothing One feature still prevalent in Pakistan is the traditional clothing seen out here. There are many women and men who prefer to stick to traditional clothing of Pakistan although a majority wears western attire. Pakistani clothing holds significance during many ceremonies and festivals celebrated throughout the year. Salwar kameez (shalwar qameez) is the national dress of Pakistan. Salwars are loose trousers designed in various styles. The salwar kameez is important especially during the festivals celebrated in Pakistan, for men as well as women. Salwar kameez is also popular due to the comfort factor. The salwar is tied at the waist with the help of a drawstring and more recently; elastic is also used for the same purpose. The fit is generally baggy or tapering. Interesting patterns woven with lace are used to add femininity to the kameez. Women also use a dupatta with the salwar kameez. Dupattas are long yards of cloth available along with the salwar kameez because their color and pattern is coordinated as per the entire ensemble. Women also wear scarves or shawls with the salwar kameez that is used to wrap around the head and neck area. A variety of synthetic or cotton fabrics are used in the creation of the salwar kameez. Narrow tight fitting salwars are known as churidars. These have become a rage in the recent years even in India. Although the sherwani originated in India during the 18th century, it is also the national dress for men in Pakistan. Off late, sherwanis designed for women are gaining popularity. A sherwani is a long coat worn with a salwar. Sherwanis are generally made from heavy fabrics. Languages Pakistani main languages consist of Urdu, Pakistan's national and official language, and Lingua Franca, or English. Although only about 7.5% of Pakistanis speak it as their first language, it is spoken as a second and often third language by nearly all Pakistanis. Additionally, Pakistan has four major provincial languages: Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, and Balochi. Also, there are three major regional languages Hindko, Brahui, Saraiki (Punjabi variant). *Drag down for additional information Music The music of Pakistan includes diverse elements ranging from music from various parts of South Asia as well as Central Asian, Persian, Turkish, Arabic and modern day Western popular music influences. With these multiple influences, a distinctive Pakistani sound have been formed. Genres: Classical • Ghazal • Sufi •
FolkQawwali • Pop (Filmi) •
Rock (Sufi rock)Hip Hop Specific Forms:
*Religious music: Hamd • Nasheeds • Naat
*Ethnic music: Balochi • Kashmiri • Pashto
Punjabi • Sindhi
*Traditional music: Sufi • Kafi • Bhangra *Drag down from pictures for more descriptions There are many festivals celebrated annually in Pakistan, some of which, including Pakistan Day (23 March), Independence Day (14 August), Defence of Pakistan Day (6 September), Pakistan Air Force Day (7 September), the anniversaries of the birth (25 December, a national holiday) and death (11 September) of Quaid-e-Azam, birth of Allama Iqbal (9 November) and the birth (30 July) and death (8 July) of Madar-e-Millat, are observed as national public holidays. Several important religious festivals are celebrated by Pakistani Muslims during the year; the celebration days depend on the lunar Islamic calendar. Customs/Holidays Moral/Legal Norms Some social moral norms include that a Pakistani family has a strong patriarchy. There are large extended families with the same house/family compound. The eldest male (father, grandfather, paternal uncle) are usually the family leader & makes the significant decisions with family and members. Women on the other hand, play a secondary role in society. They are strictly restricted to domestic chores and have to play a dutiful role as a wife/mother. Important trends for Democracy & Freedom The president is chosen for a 5-year term by an electoral college consisting of the Senate, National Assembly, and the provincial assemblies. The prime minister is selected by the National Assembly for a 4-year term. The bicameral parliament--or Majlis-e-Shoora--consists of the Senate (100 seats; members are indirectly elected by provincial assemblies) and the National Assembly (342 seats; 60 seats reserved for women, 10 seats reserved for minorities). Each of the four provinces--Punjab, Sindh, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, and Balochistan--has a Chief Minister and provincial assembly. The Northern Areas, Azad Kashmir, and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are administered by the federal government but enjoy considerable free time. The End
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