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Transcript of Medieval Period
(1066-1485) Thank you for your attention! Norman Conquest Feudalism: a system of political organization that William the Conqueror brought to England
All land and all people belong to the King. The Organization of
Medieval Society Duke William of Normandy, aka "William the Conqueror," invaded England in 1066, with the support of the church and defeated the Anglo-Saxons at the Battle of Hastings.
In the four years of bloody fighting that followed, the Normans killed most of the native English nobility, subjugated the rest of the populace, and divided the country into estates, or fiefdoms, ruled by French-speaking barons loyal to William the Conqueror. The Estates
The idea of estates, or orders, was encouraged.
Latin chiefly spoken
those who pray
purpose was to save everyone’s soul
French chiefly spoken
those who fight
purpose was to protect, allow for all to work in peace, and provide justice
those who work, aka serfs, villeins, peasants
purpose was to feed and clothe all above them Influence of the Church In the history of the West, The Church was more powerful during the Medieval Period than any other time in history Medieval Literature and the Church Crusades 11th -13th Century, the
Church sponsored a
series of crusades,
called holy wars, to
from the Moslems Crusades and devotion to the Virgin Mary influenced the development of a unique literature known as romance, which portrays the standards of knightly conduct known as chivalry. (Chivalry comes from the French word cheval, meaning horse, because the knights fought on horseback due to their heavy armor.)
The most famous and enduring of the English romances are those written about King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table Romance Literature Universities were founded at Oxford and Cambridge to promote learning.
Towns and cities grew around mills for processing of wool into cloth
Merchants and artisans organized themselves into guilds for training apprentices and regulated business.
Middle class of trade people and free merchants emerged.
Crowding of people into towns allowed for great markets and fairs, but increased the spread of disease.
In the mid-1300s the bubonic plague, or Black Death, killed 1/3 of England's population.
In the late 14th century, the Bible was translated into English, allowing ordinary people to read and interpret the text on their own.
In 1476, William Caxton introduced the technology of printing with movable type. For the first time, books were easily made and were made available in large quantities. The subsequent spread of learning changed England forever. Social and cultural changes Religious Subjects:
Retellings of Biblical stories
Biographies of Saints
Collections of Sermons
Seven Deadly Sins and Seven Cardinal Virtues
Memento mori: "reminder of death." Prepare yourself now!
Contemptu mundi: "contempt for the world" and worldly things. Courtly Love The code of romantic love celebrated in French and English medieval romances. Men in the throes of courtly love will risk and suffer anything for the love of a noble woman. "There was a knight, a most distinguished man,
Who from the day on which he first began
To ride abroad had followed chivalry,
Truth, honor, generousness, and courtesy."
--Geoffrey Chaucer Literary Works Folk tale – a brief story passed by word of mouth from generation to generation. Arthurian stories in French and English drew upon many previously existing folk tale motifs.
Morality Play – a type of medieval drama in which the characters are abstract caricatures of virtues, vices, and the like. Morality plays attempted to dramatize the Christian struggle to choose between good and evil and ultimately, heaven and hell. Literary Devices Motif – any element that recurs in one or more works of literature or art. A person of low estate who turns out to be a king or a supernatural being is a common folk motif.
Allegory – a work in which each element symbolizes, or represents, something else.
Naïve Allegory – characters, objects, places, and actions are personifications of abstraction such as Good Deeds, Beauty, Vanity, or the journey to the Celestial Kingdom.
Satire – a humorous writing or speech intended to point out errors in order to reform human behavior or human institutions.
Physiognomy - the art of determining character or personal characteristics from the form or features of the body, esp. of the face. The Seven Deadly Sins 1. pride
7. lust Infernal punishment for the Seven Deadly Sins: the lustful are smothered in fire and brimstone. From Le grant kalendrier des Bergiers, printed by Nicolas le Rouge, Troyes, 1496. Pilgrimage The crusades were a form of pilgrimage. A
pilgrimage was the physical journey Christians took in order to become spiritually closer to God. Pilgrims became enlightened about other cultures during their dangerous travels, particularly Eastern cultures, and they entertained fellow travelers with stories en route great distances.