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Austria 1945-1966

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Stefan Wedrac

on 3 October 2018

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Transcript of Austria 1945-1966

Austria 1945-1966
Trümmerfrauen
"debris women"
WWII: severe damage, first time since Napoleonic Wars
End of WWII and Occupation
300.000 soldiers, occupation until 1955
"The Four in the jeep"
"De-Nazification?"
US-camp for Nazis "Marcus W. Orr" in Glasenbach, near Salzburg
1945-1947
12.000 prisoners
higher members of the NSDAP, SS, SA, war criminals etc.
no "re-education" or legal procedure
other camp (brit.) in Wolfsberg, Carinthia
1
2
"De-Nazification Laws" 1945/1947
Allied Arrests
May 8th: NSDAP forbidden, "War-Criminal Law"
"People's Courts" convict almost 24,000 people, 43 death sentences,
530,000 "registered" Nazis until 1948
3 categories: "war criminals", "incriminated", "less incriminated"
480,000 pay special tax, have to do additional work, lose citizen's rights and are not allowed to vote until 1948/49
136,000 fired in 1945 (100,000 civil servants, 36,000 in private companies)
general amnesty 1957
Political Structure
April 1945: Declaration of Independence
provisional government in Vienna: ÖVP, SPÖ, KPÖ
acknowledged by the SU, later by other allied powers
ÖVP: "Austian People's Party", conservative, family-value oriented, catholic, for a free but social economy
SPÖ: Social-Democratic Party, anti-radical marxism
KPÖ: Communist Party of Austria
(from 1949 on: League of the Independent)
Problems:
Costs of occupation: up to 35% of the budget
peace/state treaty
shortage of food
POW: last return in the fifties
CARE packages: 1 million
(130.000 alone in the SU)
First elections Nov 25, 1945:
*
later elections/governments
1949: "Alliance of the Independent" founded
party of former Nazis and repatriated POWs
against anti-nazi-laws
1955: Austrian Freedom Party founded
absorbs Alliance of the Independent
blend of liberal and national ideas
"Economic Miracle"
European Recovery Program
concluded 1948
almost one billion of economic aid
1962 ERP fund
Nationalization
1945-47: Soviets dismantle former German industry
1946/47 Austrian government nationalizes heavy industry, banks and mines
1/3 of the workforce
Constitution of 1920/29 in force
Political culture 1945-1966
"Proporz"
Economic Difficulties
* The Road to the Austrian State Treaty
"Social Partnership"
Employers and employee organizations engotiate wages and prices
Cambers of 1) Commerce 2) Agriculture 3) Labour plus Austrian Federation of Trade Unions with government members
social peace, almost no strikes
proportional appointment of positions in the administraion and nationalized enterprises
secures political peace
corruption, nepotism
public and private life shaped by socio-cultural milieu of party membership
1/4 of the population member of a party
industy flourishes
inflation stopped in the 50ies
budget consolidated
"social" market economy
1947: negotiations begin, SU opposes because of Yugoslav claims
1948: communist coup d'etat in the CSR, Berlin blockade, Tito breaks with Stalin
1949: Fed. Rep. of Germany & NATO founded
1953: Josef Stalin dies
1954: Austrians propose neutrality
early 1955: Molotov expresses the wish for an Austrian state treaty,
April 1955: Moscow-Memorandum: Austria promises neutrality
May 15th, 1955: State Treaty signed
Independence, Democracy, HR
Union with Germany prohibited
Habsburg restauration prohibited
Minority rights granted
Prohibition of the NSDAP
no reparations
1955: Austria joins the UN
Oct. 26th 1955: Austrian Parliament passes constitutional law of "permanent neutrality"
Moscow Declaration, 1943
Stefan Wedrac, IES Vienna
Allied Powers agree on er-establishing Austria
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