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Erika Kutchmarick

on 11 December 2013

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Transcript of Egypt

Economy and Labor Market
World Trade Organization

257.3 billion USD GDP, grown by 2.2% since 2012
27th worldwide

GDP consumption by sector of origin
agriculture- 14.7%
industry- 37.40%
services- 47.9%

Currency: Egyptian Pound

Status of Women
General Demographics
Ethnic Diversity
Egypt has a population of about 67 million people.
Egypt is a nation that has existed since ancient times and therefor has a variety in what constitutes an egyptian home. Modern Egyptian homes in an urban setting, such as Cairo or Alexandria, often look similar ti modern american homes. Whereas a rural Egyptian hoe in a village may be more likely to be maid from mud-brick and have dirt floors.
~Islam is one of the world’s major religions. Among the most important duties for a Muslim, is fasting during the Islamic month of Ramadan
~Ramadan is important for Muslims because it is believed to be the month in which the first verses of the Holy Qur'an (the divine scripture) were revealed by Allah (God) to the Prophet Muhammad
~After the end of Ramadan, Muslims celebrate a very festive and joyous holiday, which is known as Eid al-Fitr, the Festival of Breaking the Fast.
Political System
Constituational System- Adopted in 1971

Excutive Branch- 6 year term, implimation of general state policy, supreme commander of Armed Forces, last president was Mohammed Hosni Mubarak

Legislative Branch- 2 part system:

People's Assembly,-444 elected officials and 10 appointed by the president, term of 5 years, duties = general policy, new laws, the budget and the development plans of the government.

Advisory Council- 140 members, 70 are nominated by the president, offers advices and consultation and proposes to the Assembly new laws and regulations.

Judicial Branch- Introduced in 1854 and centers around the English common law, Islamic law , and Napoleonic codes system. Split into 4 parts- the Supreme Constitutional Court , the Court of Cessation , the Seven courts of Appeal in the various Governorates , and the Summary Tribunals in the districts

~The climate of Egypt is generally dry. Summers are generally hot with temperatures reaching 80-90 degrees F. The Winters are also warm with temperatures reaching 55070 degrees F. The Khamaseen winds usually blow from the south of Egypt during spring and summer which brings a loot of sand and dust. These winds can raise the temperature in the desert up to 100 degrees F.
~Egypt has a predominately desert climate with a narrow coastal strip to the North having degenerate Mediterranean Climate. There are mainly two types if climates in Egypt; the degenerate Mediterranean type and hot and dry desert type.

Degenerate Mediterranean:
-found in a narrow coastal strip along the Mediterranean sea.
-summers are hot and dry while winters are mild with little rain.
-the relative humidity is higher due to proximity of the Mediterranean compared to the rest of Egypt.

Hot/ Dry desert:
-It's very hot and extremely dry during summers and mild dry winter.
- Whether winter or summer rain is nonexistent.
Transportation and Infrastructure
Railways- oldest in Africa and Middle East, second oldest in the world, Est. 1854, 7,063 Kilometers long, Egyptian National Railways, carry 800 million passengers and 12 million tons of freight per year, Very safe travel, Cairo only Metro

Roads- Two Trans-African Highway networks that start in Cairo, 64,000 kilometers of Roads, 49,984 kilometers are paved

Waterways- 3,500 kilometers, two major ones: Nile River and Lake Nasser

Pipelines- 666 kilometers for Crude Oil, 596 kilometers for Petroleum Products, 596 kilometers for Natural Gas
Popular Culture
~Egyptians will never leave a slipper or a shoe turned upside down, or a pair of scissors open
~Egypt remains one of the more secure and friendly countries in the world for tourists.
~ Egyptians laugh at their way of life, and everything else under the sun
~Change coming slowly to pop culture in Egypt

Labor Market
26.42 million, 24th worldwide
Unemployment rate: 13.5%
Populace below poverty line: 20%
Production of Country
Agricultural products: Industries:
Cotton food processing
rice tourism
corn chemicals
white beans pharmaceuticals
fruits hydrocarbons
vegetables construction
cattle cement
water buffalo metals
sheep light manufactures
Political Parties
Muslim Brotherhood
Highest miles driven to indecent fatality rate in the world

Underdeveloped Road System

Most traffic lights have in Cair don't work

Lack of Authoritative Consequence

Environmental Concerns

163 km long and 300 meters wide

Connects Red sea and Mediterranean

Created in 1869

Nile Delta to Red Sea 13th century


Sold to United Kingdom 1875

Took it back in 1962

Takes 11 to 16 hours to pass through

8% of of worldwide shipping traffic, 50 ship daily

5.1% Christian
94.9% Muslim
<0.1% Hindu
<0.1% Buddhist
<0.1% Jewish
<0.1% Unaffiliated

~Women must cover bare arms. There is no need to wear a hat, or to cover hair. 
~Egyptians have strong family values and are expected to be faithful to both their nuclear and extended families.
~Much of the Egyptian Muslim population identify as Sunni
~Mosques differ from Western Churches.
~There are many Mosques in Egypt
~Followers of Sunni Islam make up about 80% of the muslim population
~Sunna - translated variously as the "trodden path," "the way," "example," or "habitual practice"—refers to the example or path of the Prophet Muhammad and his followers.
~The Sunni and Shi'a both trace their differences to the 7th century C.E., when disagreements over the successor to the Prophet Muhammad arose. The Sunni maintain that the Muslim community was to select the Prophet's successor (caliph) to lead, whereas the Shi'a believe the Prophet chose his son-in-law, Ali, to be his successor.
A good estimate is that about half the population is from peasantry, while the other half are rich or socially elite. Citizens living in rural areas are mostly peasants earning a living through farming.
Egypt's prime location, straddling from North Africa across the Suez Canal into Asia, makes it the center of the Arab world
17 active political parties

Main parties
-Democratic alliance for Egypt: Islamist/Muslim Brotherhood, 37.5% of Vote, 8 component parties

-Islamist Bloc: Islamist/Salafi, 27.8% of Vote, 3 component parties

-New Wafd Party: National liberal, 9.2% of Vote

-Egyptian Bloc: Social Liberal, 8.9% of Vote, 3 component parties

Established in 1923
Founder was Hassan al-Banna
-Social Movement
Financed by- Saudi Arabia (Oil Rich Countries)
-Shara Council- planning, charting policies, and programs to achieve goals of Brotherhood
-Executive Office- Leader "General Masul" (General Guide) and members- guide activities of general organization
Fall of Mubarak - Legalized Brotherhood
Sept. 23, 2013- Outlawed
-Predominantly vegetarian
-Focuses heavily on "home grown" food
-Seafood dishes found along the Coast (Alexandria)
-Bread is huge
Pita, sweet flatbread (Aish Merahrah)
Used commonly as utensil
-Mediterranean influence
-32% of labor market
-Wheat, corn, sugarcane,
cotton, fruit and vegetables,
fodder, and rice
-Government control
-8.1 million acres of fertile land
-Irrigation and the Nile River
-11% of all child mortality cases
-Increase in stunted children
-81% of child malnutrition cases go
-Largest education system in Middle East/North Africa
Arabic Schools
Language Schools

-Religious Schools
-International Schools
-High focus, yet minimal teacher training
-Kindergarten 2 years (4-5)
-Primary School 6 years (6-11)
-Preparatory School 3 years (12-14)
-General Secondary School 3 years (15-17)
-Technical/Vocational Secondary Education
3-5 years (15-17/19)

-Secondary school is based on
Preparatory School grades
-Egypt/Arab Republic of Egypt
-Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean
-Capital (and largest city): Cairo
-Official Language: Arabic
-Predominant Religion: Sunni Islam
-Natural Recources: Petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, rare earth elements, and zinc
85,294,388 (2013 est)
0-14 years: 32.3% (male 14,100,807/female 13,474,763)
15-24 years: 18% (male 7,861,197/female 7,471,045)
25-54 years: 38.3% (male 16,565,411/female 16,072,992)
55-64 years: 6.6% (male 2,801,205/female 2,842,786)
65 years and over: 4.8% (male 1,844,456/female 2,259,726)
-1.88% population growth (2013)
-Egyptian 99.6%, other 0.4%
In Egypt women are at least under the law equal to that of a man.

~ As stated in the 1956 Egyptian Constitution women were guaranteed the right to vote and equality of opportunity.
~ Labor laws were changed to ensure women's standing in the work force and maternity leave was legally protected.
~ To limit women's contact with men as tradition, practices such as veiling and gender segregation at schools, work, and recreation have become common.
~ In lower class families in Egypt they tend to withdraw women from school once they hit puberty to limit interactiosn with males.
~ In the lower class society men prefer women for marriage who have been secluded to those who work and attend school.

Urban Egyptian Homes:
Wealthier people live in Villas, where each branch of the family lives on their own floor. In these homes they will have amenities such as appliances in their apartments of private houses. In these homes there are usually large living rooms when you first walk in to greet and amuse the company.
Rural Egyptian Homes:
They usually live in mud or brick homes, and tend to be square or rectangular in shape. The roof is made from the same mud brick as the house and is flat. The roof is flat because, they usually have livestock kept on the roofs such as goats.

Suez Canal
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