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Revision for OCR GCSE PE - Now complete!

David Webb

on 6 December 2010

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Transcript of OCR GCSE PE

GCSE PE Revision Factors affecting participation and performance The relationship between health, fitness and physical activity Risk Assessment in Physical Activity Muscle 3 types
Involuntary - works on its own - lungs
Cardiac - The heeart
Voluntary - The important ones - They are the ones you use in sport These produce movement by contracting and relaxing
One contracts (prime mover) the other relaxes (agonist) Two types of fibres
Fast twitch
Slow twitch Short term boost of power
like sprinting - works without oxygen, uses squirts of chemicals to fuel the movement Long term repititive movement
Uses a constant supply of oxygen to fuel movement
Marathon Running ANAEROBIC Aerobic The jobs of the skeleton
Movement - essesntial for sport
Protection - rib cage, skull etc
Blood production
Types of bones
Long - arms and legs - create movement
Short bones - Hands and feet
Flat - usually protective like Patella Joints
A place where 2 or more bones meet.
Often creates movement like the knee. Shoulder and Hip
Ball and socket
Great range of movement Knee and elbow
Hinge joint
Movement in one plain only Neck
Pivot joint
Only rotates Wrist and ankle
Gliding joint
Usually made up of many bones Joints are held together by LIGAMENTS
The shock absorber between bones is CARTILAGE
Bones attached to muscle by TENDONS
These are all made soft tissue, Types of movement Flexion - bendtowards body
Extention - bends away from body
Rotation - swivel of the joint
Abduction - Move away from body
Adduction - Move towards body Mental Preparation This is getting yourself ready for sport.
There are different techniques to do this Relaxation
Massage muscles
Calm Music
Meditation Mental Rehearsal Picturing how a skill look when performed well
Bobsleigh drivers do this by mental driving down the track Focusing
Mind free of distraction
Being in the zone Motivation 2 Types INTRINSIC
Self motivated
Play because you enjoy it
To keep fit
Have friends
Wayne Rooney EXTRINSIC
Outside personal drive
Chris Eubank Arousal Stimulated through motivation
Being psyched up ready for performance
Can get over aroused - Causes a player to lose control
Leads to poor performance, over aggression
Under arousal - Causes a player to be too relaxed
Leads to poor performance,

Goal Setting Gives a player something to aim for.
Targets need to follow SMARTER principle. Target Goal
"I want to win the cup"

Process Goal
"I want to improve my shooting in netball" Skill "The learned ability to bring about a predetermined event with the minimum outlay of time, effort or both" "Skill is something we can learn to do so that we can do it accurately everytime quickly and easily" What the hell does this mean? Flexibility
The amount or range at a joint
Used in: Gymnastic, Goalkeeping, Diving
Who: Beth Tweddle, Tom Daly, Shay Given
Test: Sit and Reach Balance
Controlling body movement and reating balance whilst moving
Used: Gymnastics, Rugby, Football, Trampolining
Who: Shane Williams, Michael Owen,
Test: Stork Stand Test Speed
How quickly a performer can move body parts
Used: Football, Rugby, Table Tennis, Cricket, Tennis
Who: Theo Walcot, Rafa Nadal, James Anderson
Test: 20m Sprint Agility
The ability to move quickly and flexibly and to change direction
Used: Tennis, Rugby, Football
Who: Lionel Messi, Jason Robinson, Djorkovic, Rob Green
Test: Illionois Run

Reaction Time
Natural ability to respond quickly to a stimulus
Used: 100m, table tennis, tennis, boxing
Who: Dwayne Chambers, Amir Khan
Test: Ruler Drop Co-ordiantion
Control over movement and linking different movements together effectively
Used: Tennis, Boxing, Table tennis, netball,cricket
Who: Federer, Maywether, Collingwood
Test: Cup stacking Circulatory and Respiratory System How blood carries oxygen around the body Oxygen enters the body through mouth and nose
Travels to lungs
Gaseous Exchange transfer it into bloodstream
CO2 removed and breathed out
Blood pumped by heart around the body.
In sport oxygen goes to muscles to fuel AEROBIC movement
Deoxygenated blood is then pumped back to the lungs and co2 is rmoved
Key words Tolerance - The amount of work the body can cope with

Oxygen debt - the rate at which muscle work is greater than the bodies ability to supply oxygen

Recovery Rate - How quickly the body can get bnack to normal following the exercise, the quicker it does the fitter you are

Homeostasis - When the body is providing enough oxygen to fuel its movement Stroke volume
Heart rate
Cardiac Output Jobs of the blood
Transport oxygen and CO2
Protect body from infection
Regulate body temperature
Carries digested food and waste This bit of time Benefits of exercise on cv system Stronger cardiac muscle (heart) Increased oxygen debt tolerance Increased stroke volume Increased cardiac output Lower resting heartrate You get fitter Inputs are all the bits of info going into you brain
Where is the defender?
Who can I pass to?
etc Making the decision to pass or shoot
Decision based on previous experience and training Physically doing what you have decided to do Did it work.
This can be knowledge of result
Did I score - yes Or knowledge of performance
Did I play well, What was my sommersaullt like? Knowledge of results usually comes INTRINSICALLY.

You know if you scored or not Knowledge of performance can be EXTRINSIC usually from your coach or manager but can be INTRINSIC to. Feedback video Learning a skill A novice

Will be inconsistent
put alot of effort in for less effective performance
be slow to perform a skill
will not adapt quickly V An Expert

have a high level of consistency
will appear to use little energy to perform skill
perform skill quickly
be adaptable Key words - Consistency, energy, time, adaptable We learn skills by
Trial and Error
Role Models Skill Continuums Social Reason for Participation or why people do sport An increase in the amount of leisure time people have has led to them doing more sport Shorter working week = People have more time to do things Technological Advances = People can do things quicker freeing up more leisure time for them Early retirement = Older people don't work much giving them free time to fill Unemployment = People without jobs get money off sport and have plenty of free time People do sport for one of 3 main reasons

Health - They need to get fit to stay healthy

Leisure - They enjoy doing it

Vocation - It's their job. Professional players, coaches or administrators ( and the odd PE Teacher) Schools promote sport by
Having compulsory Pe lessons for all 5-16 year old
Running examination courses in PE
Having extra curricular clubs and teams
Establishing links with local clubs
Having a Schools Sports Co-ordinator Social Background The positive and negative influences on participation + - Access
Peer group
Tradition/Culture Limited for some, depends on where you live Much improved facillities over the years Far mor older people doing sport Some young people stopped from doing certain things Still some accessability issues Loads of opprtunitities and funding as well as Special Olympics playing fields sold off, private schools have unfair advantage NC pushes at least 2 hrs PE a week for all Moderate climate like the UK allows for most sports to be played Some sports are difficult to do in the UK - Skiing etc. People often carry on family sporting traditions Some famillies can be unsupportive Some sports still not considered appropriate for women e.g boxing Women now treated as equals in most sports e.e Wimbledon prize money noe the same. Pro athletes constaantly under the microscope of the media Global media helps promote sport which brings money in that can be redistribiuted to grass roots Friends can encourage you to take part in sport It takes strength of character to do your own thing Politicians can use sport to promote their own agenda e.g Boycotts of events Government can give substantial assistance to sports e.g Sport England Sport is often a way out for those in difficult situations When struggling to feed and house yourself, sport is often one of the last things on your agenda A great way of getting lots of money into a sport Sponsors often have too much control, take the best tickets and can influence scheduling of sport Sport boycott of South Africa help end apartheid Some cultures stop women from competing in sport Local and National Provision Provision
Do adequate facillities exist?
Who provides them? Opportunity
Are people using the facillities?
Who is helping them to use them? Local Authority

Private Enterprise

Private/voluntary clubs and associations Council run facillities
Often free or cheap
standard of faciliities variable Examples
Lloyds Park
West Wickham Pool
Skate parks
Run for and by members
Non profit making
can get grants to improve facillities Examples
Coney Hall Football Club
Addiscombe Cricket Club
Croydon Rugby Club Run for profit
Usually excellent facillities
Expensive Examples
David Lloyd Centres
Virgin Active Clubs Sport England
Government funded
Encourages sport and recreation in England
Provides some facillities - Centres of Excellence e.g Crystal Palace sports centre
Helps Elite athletes
Gives out Lottery Funding for Sport
Gives out other grants Skeletal System Muscular System Improved Recovery Rate Components of fitness Cardio Vascular Endurance
The capacity of the heart and lungs to meet the bodies demand for oxygen over a period of time. Also called stamina Used in: Distance running, football, rugby, swimming, Cycling, any sport the last a long period of time
Who: Paula Radcliff, Owen Hargreaves, Rebecca Adlington, Chris Hoy
Test: Multistage fitness test (Bleep Test), Cooper run Muscular Endurance
The ability of the muscles to perform repeatedly over a long period without becoming tired Used in: Rock climbing, Cycling, rugby, swimming, rowing
Who: Sir Steve Redgrave, Bradley Wiggins, Mike Tindall
Test: Press ups/sit ups in a minute, ski jump
The maximum force a muscle or group muscles can exert in one contraction. Power is speed added tostrength What: Weight Lifting, Boxing, rugby
Who: David Haye, Andrew Sheridan
Test: Standing Long Jump, Seargent Jump Training Principle of training
Principles that govern the way in which the body responds to exercise Purpopse of exercise
To lose weight
To feel good about themselves
To recover from injury Warm ups
Physically preapring the body for exercise
Pulse gradually raised
Joint flexibility addressed
Stretching of muscle, this could be dynamic (moving) or static
Performer should be mentally focused
Cool down
Allowing the pulse rate to gradulally return to resting
Helps replace oxygen debt
Reduces lactic acid build up
Done through long static stretches FITT Principle
F - Frequency - The number of session a week can vary
I - Intensity - How hard the session is can vary
T - Time - The length of the session can vary
T - Type - The different training methods can vary Key words Overload - Improving your physical performance by forcing your body to work beyond its limits Specificity - Training must be specific ot relavany for the activity intended e.g divers trainers on the trampolines Progression - all training must be geared towards a target or goal that requires constant improvement to achieve. Peaking - Timing training to reach your ultimate level just in time to compete Reversibility -For every week of training missed you lose the equivelant of three week of training. Methods of training The different way tou can train Circuit Training
Based on the completion of a series of varying stations
Can be targeted towards specific, sports or component of fitness Continuous Training
Training AEROBICALLY over a longer period with no breaks
e.g Aerobic, swimming, cycling
Improve CV Endurance Fartlek
Speedplay, Similar to contiuous but included ANAEROBIC short bursts to improve speed Interval training
Periods of activity follwed by rest. Timing of training and rests can be altered to allow for progression e.g swimming training Flexibility
Relevant to all sports. Movement around a joint to increase the range of movement.
Weight Training
Like circuit traing but aimed mostly add Muscular strength, power and endurance.
Often done in gyms Effects of training Short Term
Sweating to remove heat from body
Muscle increase in temperature
Pulse rate increase so body meets oxygen demand of muscles
Breathing rate increased to deliver more oxygen to the bloodstream Long Term
CV system works far more effeciently
The Heart can pump more blood out in one pump increasing the amount of oxygen sent around the body
Lower resting rate
Increases VO2 max. MOre oxygen can be sent around the body
Muscles get bigger, stronger and tire less quickly
Rate of recovery lessens
Lose weight by burning off excess fat

Factors that effect fitness Physical
Height - Different sports are suited to people of differnt heights
e.g Basketball - Tall, Gymnastics - short, Rugby - Different positions suit different heights
Weight - Power based sports suited to be suited to heavier people
e.g sumo wrestlers
Endurance events suited to lighter people
e.g marathon runners Physique
There are extreme 3 body types but most people sit on a line somewhere between 2 of them Endomorph
Thin shoulders, wide hips
Shorter limbs
High fat, low muscle
e.g shefti kuqi Ectomorph
Thin shoulders, thin hips
Long limbs
Low fat, low muscle
e.g Peter Crouch, High Jumpers Mesomorph
Wide shoulders, thin hips
Normal limbs
High muscle, Low fat
e.g David Haye, Sol Campbell, Prevention of Injury Skill related Fitness Appropriate level of competition
e.g age groups in rugby, weight in judo, no male/female football after age 11 Clothing and footwear
wear the right clothing
e.g cycling shorts, football boots Correct technique
doing something the right way can stop you getting injured
e.g doing the high jump or pole vault Knowing safety procedures
How events are organised and the sports safety procedures e.g javelin
Lifting and Carrying
Often whilst training equipment needs moving. Caution is needed
e.g putting up table tennis tables Personal Protective equipment
essential wear for some sport
e.g shinpads, gum shields, ski helmets Rules and Laws
Rules are there to help you stay safe
e.g tackling with studs up or from behind Warm up/ Cool down
Body preparation is essential Not relevant but funny Potential Hazards The gym and sports hall
Dirty floor
Equipment left out
Broken equipment
Inappropriate use Hard Court Areas
Slippery surface
Broken fence
wobbly posts
projecting sockets
windows not protects
Pools of water Outdoor activities
Extreme conditions
Water Playing Fields
Dog poo
long grass
broken glass
rugby posts not padded
corner flags not flexible
frozen pitch Swimming pool
Slippery surfaces
Inappropriate use
Broken diving board This is all common sense Injury Treatment Blisters
Cause: Continual rubbing of the skin
Signs/Sympton: Large bubble of fluid appears
Treatement: Do not burst,protective padding or medically drained Concussion
Cause: Blow to the head
Sign/Sympton: Unconscious, dazed, confused, pale, heavy breathing
Treatment: Get medical help, keep conscious if possible Cuts and Grazes
Cause: Opened or grazed skin usually caused by contact
Sign/Sympton: Red raw patch of skin or open bleeding wound
Treatment: antiseptic dressing, stitches Dehydration
Cause: Usually by excessive sweting and inadequate fluid intake
Sign/Sympton: Exhaustion, dizzy, weak, sick, uncoordinated
Treatment: Immediate fluid intake, rest Cramp
Cause: Fatigue, dehydration
Sign: Muscular spasm
Treatment: Stretching of effected muscle, rest R - Rest
I - Ice
C - Compression
E - Elevation Treatment of soft tissue injury THE END
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