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Vertebrate Zoology

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Maggie M.

on 11 November 2013

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Transcript of Vertebrate Zoology

Glandular skin (sometimes with poison glands) with cutaneous respiration.

Pedicellate teeth

Papilla amphibiorum

Green rods in the retina of the eye

Levator bulbi

Operculum-columella complex (For sound transmission)

Hyomandibular bone has now become the stapes - used for hearing.
Muscular lobed fin, with bony central axis

Cosmoid scales




Pulmonary vein and divided atria
Second hox gene duplication

Intrinsic eye muscles

Hypobranchial muscles

Two olfactory tracks lead to two nostrils

Myelin sheathes on nerve fibers
Tripartite body:
Proboscis

Collar

Trunk

Ventral blood vessel

Pharyngeal slits

Dorsal hollow nerve cord

Stomochord
Chondrichthyes
Pikaia - Burgess shale
Mid-Cambrian (530 MYA)
Straight Myomeres
Notochord
Pharyngeal slits?


Yunnanozoans - Chengiang Fauna
Mid-Cambrian (520 MYA)
Myomeres
Notochord
Pharynx
Large brain?
Eyes?
Thick Branchial bars?
Bilateria
Porifera
Cnidaria
Arthropoda
Annelida
Mollusca
Bryozoa
Brachiopoda
Proterostomata
Metazoa
Echinodermata
Hemichordata
Xenoturbellida
Ambulacaria
Deuterostomata
Urochordata
Cephalochordata
Chordata
Euchordata
Radial egg cleavage after fertilization.

Indeterminate cleavage.

Transformation of the blastopore into the anus rather than the mouth.

Unique larval stage.

Pharyngeal slits

Dorsal hollow nerve cord
Notochord

Myomeres - V shaped muscles

Anterior sense organs

Muscular pharynx

Posterior post-anal tail

Endostyle
Tunnicates - Sea squirts, salps, sea porks
Myxinidae
Petromyzontiformes
Vertebrata
Ostracodermi
Conodonata
Cyclostomata
Gnathostomata
Teleostomi
Osteichthyes
Elasmobranchii
Holocephali
Batoidea
Claeson and Hilger (2011) Molecular Hypothesis
Carcharhiniformes
Lamniformes
Squaliformes
Placodermii
Acanthodii
Actinopterygii
Sarcopterygii
Choanata
Tetrapoda
Actinistia
Dipnoi
Polypteriformes
Actinopteri
Chondrostei
Acipenseriformes
Neopterygii
Halecostomi
Teleostei
Euteleostei
Osteoglossomorpha
Elopomorpha
Ostariophysi
Clupeomorpha
Esociformes
Salmoniformes
Perciformes
Amiiformes
Lepisostiformes
Amia calva
Anguilla rostrata
Ictalurus nebuosus
Catastomus commersonii
Cyprinus carpio
Protacanthopterygii
Salvelinus fontinalis
Osmerus mordax
Esox niger
Lepomis gibbosus
Micropterus salmoides
Osteolepis
Eustnenopteron
Osteolepiforms
Pandenrichthys
Elpistostege
Tiktaalik
Ventastega
Tetrapodamorpha
Ichthyostega
Acanthostega
Amphibia
Amniota
Synapsida
Reptilia
Mammalia
Dimetrodon
Testudines
Gymnophiona
Batrachia
Anura
Caudata
Cryptobranchoidea
Hynobiidae
Cryptobranchidea
Sirenidea
Rhyacotritonidae
Amphiumidae
Plethodontidae
Salamandroidea
Proteidae
Salamandridae
Dicamptodontidae
Ambystomatidae
Ascaphidae
Leiopelmatidae
Pipidae
Scaphiopodidae
Ranidae
Microhylidae
Ranoidea
Dendrobatidae
Hylidae
Bufonidae
Hyloidea
Neobatrachia
Acosmanura
Pipanura
Ford and Cannatella (1993)
Weins et al (2005)
Notophthalmus viridescens
Necturus maculosus
Ambystoma maculatum
Desmognathus fuscus
Eurycea bislineata
Rana catesbeiana
Rana clamitans
Rana pipiens
Pseudacris crucifer
Hyla versicolor
Bufo americanus
Here, arm lengths are not indicative to amount of time or how derived a group is but merely meant to make reading easier.
Loss of pharyngeal slits and dorsal hollow nerve cord
Most are sedentary adults, with some colonial species.

Filter feed using a basket-like pharynx

Free-living larvae possess derived chordate features
Incurrent & Excurrent Siphons

Tunic

Ocellus

Otolith

Heart and "Brain"

Dramatic metamorphosis
Contact substrate with adhesive papillae.
Within minutes, the notochord degenerates.
Notochord, dorsal hollow nerve cord and tail resorbed.
Pharynx enlarges, and gill slits increase.
Amphioxus (lancelet)
Sedentary creatures that live in burrows, feeding using suspension feeding with their pharyngeal slits.

Have serially arranged gonads.
Advanced nervous system

Dorsal/ventral aorta

No heart

Photosensitive pigment spot ("eye")

Cirri (tentacles)

Hatshek's pit

Endostyle

Hepatic diverticulum

Atrium
- Possible fossil record -
Schubert et al. 2006
Cranium


Vertebrae

W-shaped Myomeres

Liver

Kidney

Tripartite brain

Sense organs

Two chambered heart, plus Sinus Vinosus

Neural Crest Cells



Hox gene complex

41 microRNAs
- Possible fossil record -
Embryology
Three germ cell layers form during embryogenesis:

Ectoderm - skin, nervous system, sense organs, lining of the anterior/posterior digestive track.
Mesoderm - muscles, skeleton (notochord), connective tissue, circulatory system, urogenital system.
Endoderm - lining of digestive track, glands for gut, respiratory surfaces.

In vertebrates, development is flexible.
Inductive interactions among structures determines the formation
of different cell types and tissues.
Neural crest
Source for many unique vertebrate characters:
dermal skeleton and branchial skeleton, and plays a major role in the development of the skull.
Epidermal placodes
Involved in the formation of major vertebrate sensory organs (olfactory, optic and otic capsules), and the lateral line system.
We cannot observe these traits directly in fossils;
Adult derivatives are evidence for their presence
Dermal bone fagments from Ordovician may display dentinous tubercles
(evidence for neural crest cells)
and lateral line grooves
(evidence for placodes)
Tissue mineralization:
Enamaloid (from mesoderm)
Enamel (from ectoderm)
Dentine (from neural crest)
Cementum (bone-like substance)
Cartilage (collagen-based in vertebrates; from mesoderm)
Bone (From mesoderm and neural crest, made of CaPO4)
Teeth
Original mineralized tissue was skin
Dermal bone - developes within the skin (membranous)
Mineralization moved inside the body
Endochondral bone - pre-formatino of bone within cartilage.
External layers = lamellar bone (compact)
Internal layers = cancellous bone (spongy)
3 Basic Components
Chondrocranium (Phylogenetically the oldest)


Dermatocranium


Splanchnocranium
Neurocranium (braincase) deepest lying
Encases and protects the brain, nose, and inner ear (sensory capsules).
Formed from cartilage and through the endochondral ossification of the neural cells.
Remains cartilage in jawless fish and Chondrichthyes
Replaced by bone in Osteichthyes.
Dermal elements that surround the chondrocranium and splanchnocranium.
Skull roof, area around orbits, gill covers, roof of mouth, jaws.
Makes up most of cranial structure in bony fish and tetrapods.
Formed from cells of neural crest and skin cells.
Visceral or branchial skeleton (mandibular arch, hyoid arch, gill arches).
Supports gill arches for respiration and feeding
Formed from cartilage and through the endochondral ossification of the neural crest cells
In vertebrates without gills, becomes the larynx and trachea.
Temnospondyl hypothesis
Stem-tetrapods
Icthyosaurs
Plesiosaurs
Rhyncocephalia
Lepidosauria
Squamata
Archosauria
Pterosaurs
Dinosauria
Pleurodira
Chelidae
Pelomedusidae
Trionychidae
Carettochelyidae
Cryptodira
Chelydridae
Dermatochelys
Cheloniidae
Kinosternidae
Platysternidae
Emydidae
Testudinidae
Geoemydidae
Diapsida
Petrolacosaurus
Sauria
Iguania
Scleroglossa
Anguimorpha
Iguanidae
Phrynosomatidae
Chamaeleonidae
Varanidae
Mosasaurs
Serpentes
Gekkota
Scincomorpha
Amphisbaenia
Scincidae
Ornithodira
Phytosauria
Crocodylia
Crurotarsi
Antorbital fenestra

Mandibular fenestra

Serrated teeth

Four chambered heart

Gizzard

Parental Care

Muscular diaphragm

4th trochanter on the femur (muscle attachment)

Trend toward bipedialism
Ornithischia
Sauropodomorpha
Saurischia
Theropoda
Ceratosauria
Allosauridae
Compsagnathidae
Tyrannosauridae
Dromeosauridae
Archaeopteryx
Confusiusornis
Hesperornis
Ichthyornis
Aves
Avialae
Maniraptora
Filamentous feathers
Elongate feathers
Flight & Asymmetric feathers
"Lizard-hipped"
"bird-hipped"
Chelonioidea
Sternotherus ordoratus
Testodinoidea
Chrysemys picta
Glyptemys muhienbergii
Terrepene carolina
Sceloporus undulatus
Colubridae
Viperidae
Nerodia sipedon
Thamnophis sirtalis
Stoeria dekayi
Crotalus horridus
Jaws

Paired pectoral/pelvic fins

Vertebrae with centra and ribs

Three semicircular canals

Spiracle

Conus arteriosus (elastic reservoir) in heart

Myomeres divided into epacial (dorsal) and hypaxial (ventral) portions


Allow for rapid adjustment of body movements (In response to increasingly active predators)

Both sets of paired fins only in living gnathostomes

Likely acquired step-wise within Ostracodermi
Pectoral fin folds
Pectoral fin folds with pectoral skeleton
Ribs within connective tissue between muscle segments: provide anchor point.
Movement and balance within a 3D medium.

Rapid adjustment of body movements.
Ordovician - Permian
Silurian - Devonian
Cartilaginous endoskeleton





Pelvic claspers


Rectal Gland
Bone
Silurian - Recent
Spine with venom gland

Deep water - feed on shrimp, mollusks, sea urchins

Tooth plates that grow throughout life

Male has two pelvic claspers and a cephalic clasper

No stomach

Operculum with single opening

Separate urogenital and anal openings

Two basal elements in fin
Ampullae of Lorenzini



Three basal elements in pectoral fin
Benthic adaptations

Many durophageous, large ones planktonic

Highly protrusable jaws - suction feeding.
Devonian - Recent
Ray-finned fishes
Silurian - Recent
Lung derived from gut


Adenticulate scales


Lepidotrichia


Endochondral bone
Scales with ganoine


Fins supported by lepidotrichia only


Everted brain
Locomotion:
Reduction of dermal skeleton.
Increasing ossification of vertebral column and internal skeleton.
Heterocercal to homocercal tail
Swim bladder (respiration -> buoyancy)

Feeding
Increased mobility of jaws
Bichirs and reedfish
Heavily ossified (inside and out)

Retain many ancestral actinopterygian features
Ganoid scales
Lung
Heterocercal tail

Dorsal finlets (unique)
Lung becomes swim bladder
Sturgeon (Acipenseridae) and Paddlefish (Polyodontidae)
Retain ganoid scales (but armor reduced)


No endochondral bone (unique)


No centra (unique)


Strongly heterocercal tail
Abbreviated heterocercal tail
Gars
Heavy armor of ganoid scales

Ambush predators
Cycloid scales


Mobile maxilla
Homocercal tail



Mobile premaxilla
Symmetrical: horizontal swimming without use of paired fins

Frees fins for other functions
Extreme jaw protrusion

Allows new feeding specializations
Pectoral fins move to dorsal end of body
Pelvic fins move to anterior part of body
Internal fertilization (exchange of spermatophores)
Anapsida
Tuatara
(Becker et al., 2011 & Lyson et al. 2011)
Endostyle
Tunic
Intestine
Incurrent siphon
Excurrent siphon
Adult
Notochord
Dorsal hollow nerve cord
Adhesive papillae
Pharynx
with pharyngeal slits
Larvae
Collar
Pharyngeal slits
Anus
Proboscis
Lamprey
Notochord
Nerve cord
Intestine
Gill slits

Endostyle
Lamprey Larvae
Gonad
Kidney
Intestine
Notochord
Nerve cord
Petromyzontoidea Cross section (mid)
Sagittal Section of Lamprey
Eyes
Myomeres
Pharangeal Gland
Pharanx
Brain
Cross Section (Anterior end)
Dorsal Hollow nerve cord
Notochord
Myomeres
Liver
Heart
Pharanx
Gill Slit
Pineal Gland
Olfactory sac
Sagittal Section of Lamprey
Atrium
Ventricle
Petromyzontoidea Heart
Gonads
Lamprey (Gonads)
Gill Lamellae
Lamprey Gills
Notochord
Intestine
Gonad
Kidney
Lamprey Digestion
Kidneys
Colon
Spleen
Stomach
Liver
Small intestine
Shark Internal Anatomy
Caecilians
Loss of limbs (no digits, limbs or girdles)

Protrusible copulatory organ in males

Protrusible sensory tentacle (Chemoreception)

Reduced eyes, some with covered orbit with skin/bone.
External fertilization (Plesiomorphy)
Lack pelvic girdles/hindlimbs

Tiny front limbs
Lack lungs

Nasolabial grooves

Modified hyoid skeleton
Hollow bones

Furcula

Reduced digits
Waterproof skin (keratin)

True Claws

Mobile Ribs - used in ventilation (aspiration pump)

Laryngeal/Tracheal apparatuses

Axis in addition to atlas

Internal fertilization

Amniotic Egg
Egg can now be laid away from water.

Developing embryo is protected by a shell which also prevents it from drying out.

Yolk is a source of food

Allantois disposes of waste
Permian
Permian
Supported by similarities in adult morphology, mitrochondrial and ribosomal data.
Alternative Hypothesis:
Chordata
Olfatores
Ambulacaria
Urochordata
Cephalochordata
Vertebrata
Supported by genomic data
Richard Fox - Lander University
Stout spines anterior to fins

Multiple pairs of ventrolateral fins

Heterocercal tail

Fusiform shape

Operculum

Branchiostegal rays

Tooth whorl
Armored fish with mobile heads and jaws

Global distribution in marine and freshwater

Bony plates attached to jaw margin
Example fossils:
Coccosteus
Bothriolepis
Arthrodires have special joint, where jaw opens heads up rather than bottom down.

Cartilaginous jaw supported by muscles inside.
Anderson and Westneat, 2007
Highest sea-level ever
Cold temperatures at the end of the period
Mass extinction at Ordovician/Silurian bounday. (57% of genera)
*Photos by Joshua Clark - 2012
Ratfish, Rabbitfish, Chimaeras
- Possible fossil record -
Myllokunmingia - Chengiang Fauna
Mid Cambrian (520 MYA)
W-Myomeres
Notochord
Dorsal/Ventral Fin folds
Gill pouches? 6 slits
Pericardic cavity?
Shu et al., 1999
Haikouichthys - Chengian Fauna
Mid Cambrian (520 MYA)

W-Myomeres
Notochord with vertebral elements
Dorsal/ventral fin folds with rays
Eyes
Nasal sac
Otic capsules?
Pouch-like gills with branchial basket? 9 slits
Shu et al., 2003
Circulatory / Respiratory System
Gills
Body
Deoxygenated
Blood
Deoxygenated
Oxygenated blood
Ventricle
Atrium
Sinus Venosus
Conus Arteriosus
Gills
Lung
Body
Mixture of Oxygenated and Deoxygenated blood.
Sinus Venosus
Atrium
Ventricle
Conus
Arteriosus
Circulatory / Respiratory System
Gills
Lung
Body
Sinus Venosus
Ventricle
Conus
Arteriosus
Circulatory / Respiratory System
Right Atrium
Left Atrium
Pulmonary Vein
Circulatory / Respiratory Systems
Eyelids and Lips

Loss of internal gills

Tongue skeleton (Hyoid) for feeding and buccal pumping

Epaxial muscles used for bending and posture, Hypaxial muscles used for respiration. (Movement of the ribs)

Tear ducts

Muscular tongue supported by a hyoid skeleton

Five digits

Double blood circulation (Pumping out oxygenated blood to body as well as deoxygenated blood to lungs)

Midline interclavice bone (joins the clavicles)

Occipital condyles
Lungs
Body
Left Atrium
Right Atrium
Ventricle
Conus Arteriosus
Pulminary Vein
Pulminary Artery
Slight mixing in ventricle, but oxegynated and deoxygenated blood stay in relative channels from flow and pressure.
Circulatory / Respiratory Systems
Lungs
Body
Left Atrium
Right Atrium
Ventricle
Conus Arteriosus
Pulminary Vein
Pulminary Artery
Skin
(Cutaneous respiration)
Single nostril

Tongue-like apparatus with horny teeth

Pouch-shaped gills

Cartilaginous Skeleton

Lack paired fins and jaws
2 Semicircular canals

Lateral Line system

Pineal Organ

Calcium Phosphate skeleton

True Dorsal/Anal Fins

Hypoglossal nerve

System of taste reception

Spleen
1 Semicircular Canal
Gavlalidae
Crocodylidae
Tomistoma
Crocodylus
Alligatoridae
Caiman
Alligator
Paleognathae
Neognathae
Galloanserae
Anseriformes
Galliformes
"Water birds"
Gaviiformes
Pelicaniformes
Sphenisciformes
Columbiformes
Apodiformes
Charadriiformes
"Land Birds"
Strigiformes
Accipitriiformes
Piciformes
Passeriformes
Look segmented like an annelid worm.
These segments are called annuli, which sometimes contain dermal bony scales embedded in the skin.
Salamanders
Lateral line

Sometimes paedomorphic (Adults retain juvenile features)

Retain true tail from ancestor
Torrent / Olympic Salamanders
Congo eels
Reduced number of digits on some species
Connect the upper lip to the nostrils, for chemoreception
Allowing tongue projection to capture prey.
Dusky Salamander
Northern Two-lined Salamander
Mudpuppies
Entirely aquatic

Paedomorphic
Mudpuppy
Newts
Triphasic life cycle
Gilled larvae
Terrestrial juveniles - Efts
Most adults aquatic w/ caudal fins

Warning colors for poison glands
Eastern Newt
Largest of terrestrial alamanders

Include Japanese/Chinese giant salamanders
Mole Salamanders
Costal grooves
Spotted Salamander
Frogs
Retention of extra vertebrae, free ribs and "tail wagging muscle"
Vocal sacs in males

Complete absence of free-ribs

Loss of the tail-wagging muscle

Fulcrum system for feeding
Fully aquatic

Lateral lines

No Eyelids

No tongue
Spadefoot Toads
Keratinized digging structure
Pond frogs
Bullfrog
Leopard frog
Green frog
Tadpoles lack tooth plates and have closed nostrils until metamorphosis.
Poison dart frogs
Tree frogs
Toe pads
Spring peeper
Grey tree frog
Toads
Thick, warty skin

Terrestrial

Lack teeth as adults

Large paratoid glands behind the eyes
Secrete toxic, smelly substances
Webbed feet

Laterally compressed tail

Secondary palate (convergent with mammals)
Feathers

Keratinized bill (beak)

Keeled sternum

Furculum (Fused clavicles)

Fusion of vertebrae to pelvic girdle - synsacum

Fusion of tarsals to tibia - tibiotarsus

Fusion of metatarsals - tasometarsus

Pygostyle
Loss of keel on sternum
Most flightless birds - Ostriches, Emus, Kiwi
"Fowl" - Chickens, turkeys, pheasants, ect.
Most ground dwelling

Precocial

Small heads
Bonasa umbellus
Ruffed Grouse
Ducks, Geese, Swans
Keratinized ridges on bills

Webbed feet

Flat, broad bills

Precocial
Branta canadensis
Canada goose
Doves, pigeons, dodo
Fleshy bump at base of bill

Small heads, short necks and legs

Altricial young feed "pigeon milk)
Zenaida macroura
Mourning dove
Swifts and Hummingbirds
Sickle-shaped wings

Torpor used to conserve energy

Altricial young
Archilochus colubris
Ruby throated hummingbird
Penguins
Flightless

Wing-propelled divers
Boobies, herons, pelicans, cormorants, frigate birds
Webbed feet

Some - expandable throat pouches

Some - nostrils absent

Altricial young
Ardea herodias
Great blue heron
Shorebirds
Webbed feet

Eat invertebrates or
marine vertebrates
Larus argentatus
Larus delawarensis
Herring gull
Ringed-bill gull
Songbirds
Well developed Syrinx

Altricial young
Cyanocitta cristata
Hirundo rustica
Poecile atricapillus
Cardinalis cardinalis
Turus migratorius
Passer domesticus
House sparrow
American Robin
Barn swallow
Northern Cardinal
Blue jay
Black capped chickadee
Toucans, woodpeckers, honeyguides
Zygodactyl



Modified hyoid in woodpeckers
Splayed, grasping toes
Hyoid and tongue wrap around the head in order to reduce force while hammering a tree trunk.
Dryocopus pileatus
Pileated woodpecker
Vultures and Hawks
Carnivores/Scavengers

Hooked bill

Sharp talons

Keen vision

Altricial young
Buteo jamaicensis
Red-tailed Hawk
Owls
Binocular vision

Asymmetric ears

Facial disks

Hooked bills

Sharp talons

Altricial young

Lack feather barbules
Bubo virginanus
Great-horned owl
Uric acid as a wasteproduct

Color vision

Temperature dependent sex determination
Turtles
AKA: Chelonia
Ribs form carapace of shell with neural arches fused to inside of the carapace and girdles inside the ribs.

Interclavicle and clavicle form the plastron of the shell

Teeth absent
Bend necks laterally to draw head into the shell
Fold neck vertically into an S-shap to withdraw the head into the shell
Soft-shelled turtles
Snapping turtles
Long tail

Reduced cross-shaped plastron
Chelydra serpentina
Snapping turtle
Sea turtles
Paddle-like limbs
Stinkpot/Musk turtles
Stinkpot turtle
Tortoises
Highly terrestrial
Pond/Box turtles
Painted turtle
Bog turtle
Eastern Box Turtle
Shed skin as a unit

Scales overlap

Notched tongue

Transverse cloacal slit

Determinate growth
Hemipenes

Tail autotomy

Hinged quadrate

Loss of lower temporal bar
Typically herbivorous

Septa in the colon
Horned/spiny/fence lizards
Northern Fence lizard
Tongue projection

Prehensile tails

Zygodactylous feet

Ability to change color

Eyes can rotate independently
Chamaeleons
Use jaws, not tongue, for prey capture

Scaled tongue is used for chemoreception
Geckos
Rows of lamellae on feet

No eyelids
Elongate

Mostly limbless

Fossorial

Highly fused skull and reduced eyes
Skinks
Elongate fusiform body

Rectangular scales
Limbless

Increased cranial kinesis
Northern water snake
Timber rattlesnake
Brown snake
Common garter snake
Cynodontia
Mammaliaformes
Theria
Thrinaxodon
Morganucodon
Hadrocodium
Multituberculata
Monotremata
Marsupialia
Placentalia
Xenerthra
Insectivora
Rodentia
Lagomorpha
Glires
Sylviiagus floridanus
Peromyscus maniculatus
Sciurus carolinensis
Castor canadensis
Sorex cinereus
Condylura cristata
Macroscelidea
Anagalida
Scandentia
Primates
Dermoptera
Chiroptera
Archonta
Pholidota
Carnivora
Ungulata
Tubulidentata
Cetacea
Artiodeactyla
Perissodactyla
Hyracoidea
Proboscidea
Sirenia
Eptescicus fuscus
Myotis lucifugus
Mustela frenata
Procyon lotor
Mephitis mephitis
Vulpes vulpes
Cetariodactyla
Odocoileus virginianus
Springer et al., Molecular data-based
Bats
Big brown bat
Little brown bat
Long-tailed weasel
Red fox
Striped skunk
Raccoon
Armadillos, sloths, anteaters
Xenarthroles

Osteoderms
Masked shrew
Star-nosed shrew
Beaver
Deer mouse
Eastern gray squirrel
Eastern cottontail
White-tail deer
Didelphis virginiana
Virginia opposum
Placenta

Corpus callosum
Rabbits, pikas, hares
Two pairs of upper incisors
Ever-growing incisors
Horses, tapirs, rhinoceroses
Single toe
Skates, rays, guitar fishes, sawfishes, torpedoes
Fungi
Paleocene - Present
Flat nails with pads on fingers and toes

Opposable thumb / big toe with grasping hands

Forward directed binocular vision
Haplorhini
Strepsirrhini
Tarsiers
Platyrrhini
Old World Monkeys
Gibbons
Hominidae
Anthropoidea
Catarrhini
Hominoidea
Great Apes
New World Monkeys
Lemurs
Calcified, "tessellated" cartilage may be present.
Pristiophoriformes
Squatiniformes
Heterodontiformes
Orectolobiformes
Wobbegons, carpet, nurse, zebra and giant whale sharks
Nostrils with nasoral grooves and barbels
Goblin, mako, megamouth and great white sharks
Mouth and jaw extend behind the eyes
Hammerheads, bonnet heads, bull and leopard sharks
Eyes with a nictating membrane
Crests dorsal to the eyes

Nostrils connected to the mouth by a deep groove.
Dogfish, sleeper, cookie-cutter and bramble sharks
Dorsoventrally flattened

Terminal mouth

Lack anal fins
Angel sharks
Saw sharks
Single pair of barbels in front of the eyes

Lack anal fins and dorsal fin spines
Coelacanths
Three-lobed tail
Diphycercal tail

Palatoquadrate fused to skull (autostyly)

Estivation
Differentiation of limb bones
Flattened head & humerus
Shoulder not connected to head - neck

Ear notch - ear drum
Pelvic girdle likely attached to vertebral column
more tetrapod like than Tiktaalik
"Labyrinthodont" teeth

Broad, fish-like tail with fin rays

8 toes on each foot with no real wrist/ankle

Zygapophyses

Pelvic girdle attached to vertebrae

Well ossified gill bars
Vertebral column differentiated into separate regions
(Ahlberg et al. 2005)
Caudal vertebrae fused into urostyle

Illia elongated into rods

Fused tibia/fibula and radius/ulna

Elongated femur, tarsals and toes

Robust forelimbs and shoulder girdles, designed to take impact of jumping.
Males have "tail" which is a copulatory organ
Tongue is attached to the anterior part of the jaw, and flips out of the mouth forward with a sticky pad on the end to capture prey.
Supratemporal fenestra
Infratemporal fenestra
With more sophisticated jaw movements, there is increased stress on skull bones. So, part of the skull are left open to relieve that stress (muscle bulge)
Bilateral symmetry
Starfish
Acorn Worms
Hagfish
CLADISTICS
Traditional Classification
The initial form of classification - the linnaean method - grouped organisms together into ranks based on morphological data, using overall similarity to each other.
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Under this system, organisms' classification did not reflect their evolutionary relation to others. Ranks are inconsistant and arbitrary.
Phylogenetic Systematics
Introduced by Willi Hennig (German 1950; English 1966)

Groups organisms based on their shared ancestry, nesting instead of ranking, in order to recognize only natural groups that include an ancestor and all of its descendants.

Uses branching diagrams - cladograms (trees / phylogeny) - to visualize hypotheses of taxon relationships. They are open to tests, changes and falsification, with focus on genealogy.
Terminal Taxa - tip of a branch and represents a taxa of interest.
Branch - represents a lineage of interbreeding organisms.
Node - Divergence or speciation event (Split in the tree branches) Represents a hypothetical Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA)
Sister taxa - taxa that share a MRCA: Their order can be reversed, as long as their branching pattern remains the same.
Plesiomorphy - ancestral character inherited from a distant ancestor, not the most recent.
Apomorphy - A derived, new, character in a taxon inherited from the most recent ancestor.
Synapomorphy - A shared derived character found in more than one taxon.
Autapomorphy - A derived character found in only one taxon. (Unique trait)
Homology - Similarity between groups due to inheritance from a common ancestor. (Such as arm/hand bones)
Homoplasy - (analogy / convergence) similarities that evolved independently in different groups. (Such as wings in bats vs. birds)
Time
Monophyletic Group
Paraphyletic Group
Polyphyletic Group
Is a group which includes an ancestor and all of its descendants.
Is a group consisting of an ancestor and some, but not all of its descendants.
Ex: Reptiles w/o birds (Descendants of reptiles)
Is a group consisting of taxa without any reference to their common ancestor.
(Ex: Grouping whales with fish)
Polytomy:
An unresolved relationship, due to lack of evidence, especially with the fossil record.
Vertebrate Zoology
These claspers are used by the male to grasp the female during intercourse, allowing internal fertilization
"Animals"
Eukaryote
Ctenophora
Placozoa
Lophotrochozoa
Vetulicolians - Chengiang Fauna
Mid-Cambrian (520 MYA)
Endostyle?
Phanryngeal slits?
Body segments?
No notochord



Unsure if this is a Deuterstome, Chordate, or possibly Tunnicate.
Possible origin of the thyroid
Used for filter feeding
V-shaped muscles
Flexible carilage rod
muscular, fluid filled for locomotion and suspension feeding.
(no post-anal tail)
Light-detecting organ
Gravity-sensing organ
Life: The Science of Biology, Seventh Edition, Figure 34.1: The Ancestral Deuterostomes Had External Gills
Hearing
Vision
Chemoreception
Pharynx is located between gill slits
For lens focusing
From the first gill slit
Spiral valve located inside
Along the inner wall of the skin
(Gergus and Schuett, 2000)
Ordovician
(Suction)
First known jawed vertebrates
Covers 4 gill slits
Trends
Perca flavescens
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