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Alkali Metals

By Nick Battaglia, Eric Stoesz, and Jack Hartmann

Nick Battaglia

on 19 November 2012

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Transcript of Alkali Metals

By Nick B, Eric S, and Jack H. Alkali Metals What are the Alkali Metals? Alkali Metals are the most reactive elements on the periodic table. All elements in the Alkali metal family have one valence electron, which is easily lost. Alkali Metals lose electrons easily because of the low ionization energy that the family has. Two of the more famous reactions that Alkali Metals experience are the oxidization with air and the violent reaction with water. Chemical Reactions! All of the alkali metals have one electron in the "s" orbital The Common Similarities of Alkali Metals All of the alkali metals react violently with many other elements and compounds. When lit on fire, all of the alkali metals emit light in the range of 570 nm to 650 nm. This spectrum contains yellow and red energy photons All alkali metals have the largest atomic radius and the lowest ionization energy/ electronegativity in the period they are in. Lithium can irritate the nose and throat, and when too much is inhaled, it can cause build up of fluid in the lungs Alkali Metal effects on humans Lithium is also a treatment for bipolar disorder and other mental disorders All Alkali metals are dangerous to humans when too much of an element is ingested or has come in contact with the skin Alkali metals commonly react with Halogens, because Alkali metals need to lose and electron to become more stable, while Halogens need to gain an electron to become more stable Common Compounds Formed Alkali metals will react with almost anything
because they are so unstable. Other common compounds include Borax
(Sodium Tetraborate), Potash (Potassium Carbonate), and Baking Soda (Soduim Carbonate). Alkali Metals and the Melting Point The melting point of the Alkali Metals decreases as you proceed downward through the group. Starting at Lithium's melting point of 180 'C, it continues downward to Francium's melting point of 27 'C. Cesium has such a low melting point (88 'F) that it melts in your hand (body temperature at 98 'F) Density and the Alkali Metals The Trend of Density is that Alkali Metals become more dense as you proceed downward the group, except for potassium. Since the Alkali metals have the largest atomic radius in their period, but the lowest atomic number, they are the least dense elements in their respective periods. Boiling point Like with the melting point, the boiling point decreases further down in the periodic table. The Lowest known boiling point is 671 degrees Celsius, for cesium Potasium is essential in the body also. Alkali metals effects on humans- Continued Humans need 500 milligrams of sodium ions a a day. Cesium can replace potassium in the body, which will cause potassium deficiency All Alkali Metals have an effect on the body, whether positive or negative. Nuclear Stability All Alkali metals have radio active isotopes, but cesium and lithium do not have any naturally occurring isotopes There is no non-radioactive form of Francium
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