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AFRICAN AMERICAN CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT (1954-1968)
Transcript of AFRICAN AMERICAN CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT (1954-1968)
GOALS OF THE MOVEMENT:
BACKGROUND OF THE MOVEMENT
KEY EVENTS THAT SPARKED THE FIGHT
After the American Civil War 3 constitutional amendments were passed:
13th Amendment (1865) - ended slavery.
14th Amendment (1868) - gave African Americans citizenship
15th Amendment (1870) - gave African American males the right to vote.
From 1910 to 1970, Great Migration.
Rejected legalistic approaches as the primary tool to bring about desegregation.
African American activists adopted a combined strategy of direct action, nonviolence, nonviolent resistance and many events described as civil disobedience, giving rise to the African American Civil Rights Movement 1954-1968.
THE FIGHT STARTS NOW!
The result of the centuries long efforts of African slaves and their descendants to resist racial oppression and to abolish the institution of slavery.
Characterized by major campaigns of civil resistance - Between 1955 and 1968, acts of nonviolent protests and civil disobedience produced crisis situations and productive dialogues between activists and government authorities.
Centered on the leadership and philosophy of Martin Luther King Jr.
It is considered one of the longest battles of the 20th century
Considered most racist, segregated large city in the South
Martin Luther King Jr, raised money to fight Birmingham's segregation laws.
Volunteers began with sits in, marches and were quickly arrested.
White clergy attacked King's actions in a newspaper.
In response, King wrote his "Letter form a Birmingham Jail" and devised the "Project C" which was a large scale nonviolent confrontation using children to help draw media attention and public sympathy from around the world.
AFRICAN AMERICAN CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
Encompasses many social movements that took place in the U.S to put an end to segregation and discrimination
* To end racial segregation and discrimination against black americans.
* To secure legal recognition and federal protection of the citizenship rights enumerated in the Constitution and federal law.
* Education citizenship, voting, equal treatment under the law.
* To ensure group rights and self-determination.
Many whites resisted the social changes, leading to insurgent movements such as the Ku Klux Klan, whose members attacked black and white Republicans to maintain white supremacy.
From 1890 to 1908, southern states passed new constitutions and African Americans lost rights previously won (to vote, etc.)
White Democrats imposed racial segregation by law.
Violence against blacks increased, with numerous lynchings through the turn of the century.
South became known as the “Jim Crow” system.
MARCH ON WASHINGTON D.C
Site of Martin Luther King's famous speech.
250.000 people gathered peacefully to lobby Congress and show support for John F. Kennedy 's civil rights legislation
BROWN VS. THE BOARD OF EDUCATION
1951: Black students in Virginia protest their unequal status in the state's segregated educational system.
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) joined the battle against school segregation and proceeded with 5 cases challenging school systems.
The goal was to show the Court that African American children were the victims of school segregation and their futures were at risk.
The Court established that segregation at schools was unconstitutional, and ordered integration as soon as possible.
ROSA PARKS AND THE MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT
Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white person and was arrested and received national publicity, hailed as “the mother of the civil rights movement”.
African American gathered and organized the Montgomery bus boycott to demand a bus system in which passengers were treated equally
90% of the African Americans partook in the boycott, which reduced bus revenue significantly.
They walked or carpooled during the boycott
The Little Rock Nine
Crisis: The Governor of Arkansas called the National Guard to prevent the entry of Nine African American students, who sued for the right to attend Little Rock Central High School.
The Arkansas National Guard turned the Little Rock Nine away and prevented them from entering school for three weeks.
Finally, President Eisenhower sent 101st Air bone Division to escort the students into school.
Ernest Green; first black student to graduate from the high school. In response, the next year, governor closed the school for good to prevent integration.
Emmett till was a 14 year old kid from Chicago, who went down to the Mississippi delta for the first time to visit relatives.
Lynched for inappropriate conduct towards a white female. Roy Brandt and J. W Millant acquitted of the murder charges. Later confessed in a paid interview to Look magazine.
Emmett death’s served as a galvanizing force to outraged African Americans.
many decided that the slow legal approach of the NAACP was not enough, and it motivated more people to join.
LYNCHING OF EMMETT TILL (1955)
Greensboro NY Sits in
Four Black college students were denied service in Woolworth's lunch counter due to the color of their skin.
They refused to leave their seats and more people joined the protests during the following days.
63 of 66 seats were being filled with protesters that ended the protests with daily prayers
Supreme Court in 1960 ordered that bus station facilities for interstate travelers must be opened to all passengers.
Wanted to test compliance with the Court decision and Charted a Greyhound Bus trip from Washington to New Orleans
Mobs angry at the Freedom riders for trying to use white only facilities firebombed a bus in Anniston, Alabama and attacked riders with baseball bats and metal pipes in Birmingham.
More than 900 children between ages 6 and 18 were arrested.
Police Chief used police and fire fighters to break a group of about 2,500 protesters.
The violence of these methods was all over the news and as a result, attitudes shifted against Southern efforts to maintain segregation.
TOWARDS A CHANGE...
The events in Birmingham convinced Present Kennedy to act on civil rights issues.
When he was assassinated, President Johnson took his place and supported the passage of a strong civil rights bill.
Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act on 1964 into law on July 2, 1964.
The law banned discrimination in employment and in public accommodations.
LEGACY OF THE MOVEMENT: WHAT THEY ACHIEVED
Voting rights in the South.
African American empowering.
Nowadays we have the first African American President in the history of the USA
More African Americans moved into political positions in many states.
Gains made inspired other minority groups to stand up for their rights.
A continuous journey to liberation
Fractures in the movement: many groups were created with different philosophies. (Black Panthers, Black Power, Black Musilms, etc).
Death of Martin Luther King Jr, on the 4th of April, 1968.