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History of Television

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Drew Berchick

on 8 September 2017

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Transcript of History of Television

THE HISTORY OF TELEVISION
The TV is...
Television is a widely used telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures and sound over a distance. A television system may be made up of multiple components. The TV received signals broadcast by internal tuner. A television may be built to receive different broadcast or video formats, such as high-definition television (HDTV).
TV'S IMPORTANCE
Advertising:
The TV provides marketing work.
We can inform us of many everyday products.
Information:
We can have a world view.
We can know about what happens every day.
Entertainment:
It provides amusement moments.
1) What is the FCC?
2) What is the purpose of the FCC?
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent United States government agency.

The FCC was established by the Communications Act of 1934 and is charged with regulating interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite and cable. The FCC's jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and U.S. possessions.

1) The electric telegraph was one of the first telecommunications technologies of the industrial age. How does it work?
The Electric Telegraph
2) When was the telegraph developed?

By breaking an electric current that is sent through a wire in a particular pattern. This indicates letters or phrases. This is called Morse Code, named after Samuel Morse.

(Samuel Morse)
Many people throughout history contributed to the development of the telegraph. The science of the telegraph date back to 1220 and Roger Bacon’s experiments in magnetism. In
1843
, Samuel Morse built an experimental telegraph line between Baltimore and Washington. This helped business & industrial communication until its decline in 1930.

Development of the Wireless
It Begins:
The Birth of Radio
3) Alexander Graham Bell
1876
Electrical speech machine
("photophone")


Used electricity and magnets to send the sound of a voice over long distances. Needed to be transmitted by wire.

4) Guglielmo Marconi
1901
Sent 1st transatlantic wireless
signal (from Ireland to Canada).

Many scientists and mathematicians thought that sound could not be transmitted through the air but Marconi used scientific facts and proved that it could.
5) Reginald Fessenden
1906
Introduced radio



He figured out how sound waves traveled and how to transmit them wirelessly between two points.

In 1912, The Titanic used one of Marconi’s wireless systems to send its distress signals. They sent approx. 35 messages. 700 people were saved because of the response to the distress calls.

Visionary Period 1880-1929

Development of Television
6) Eugen Goldstein
1876

Introduction of the term
"cathode rays" to describe the light emitted when an electric current was forced through a vacuum tube.

7) Sheldon Bidwell
1881

Experiments in telephotography

8) Paul Nipkow
1881

"electric telescope"
A way to electrically transmit images using spinning metal disks; calling it the


(9)
List and describe the two paths were developed for television systems.

Mechanical
television -
based on Nipkow's rotating disks.
Electronic
television - based on the cathode ray tube work done independently in 1907 by English inventor A.A. Campbell-Swinton and Russian scientist Boris Rosing.

10) How did radio networks develop during the years
1919 – 1926?
Vacuum-tubes were used for sound amplification for telephone lines.
AT&T used the lines to send a political speech over a distance and have an audience listen on loudspeakers.
In 1921 a radio network was established and made money by advertising.
Other companies then began their own networks.

The Golden Age
1930 – 1950

11. What was showcased at the 1939 World’s Fair in regards to television?
David Sarnoff with RCA showcased the 1st presidential speech on TV: Franklin Delano Roosevelt

12) How many commercial television stations were in existence from 1945 – 1948?

13) How many cities had commercial television service during this time frame?

14) In 1960, how many commercial VHF stations were there?

15) In 1960, how many US households had a TV set?



9 - 48
8 - 23
440
85%
Today, 99% of US households have at least one TV set.

16) What is a coaxial cable?

17) When and where were they first used?

A pure copper or copper-coated wire surrounded by insulation and an aluminum covering.

These cables were and are used to transmit television, telephone and data signals.
The 1st "experimental" coaxial cable lines were laid by AT&T between New York and Philadelphia in 1936.

The first “regular” installation connected Minneapolis and Stevens Point, WI in 1941.
The original L1 coaxial-cable system could carry 480 telephone conversations or one television program.
By the 1970's, L5 systems could carry 132,000 calls or more than 200 television programs.


18) When was color TV first demonstrated to the FCC and by whom?

19) How did it work?

1946 by Peter Goldmark.
He worked for CBS.

A red-blue-green wheel spun in front of the cathode ray tube

Entrepreneurs, Creative Artists & Journalists on TV, Post-WWII

20.
Entrepreneurs
David Sarnoff Alan DuMont

President, NBC/CBS
Furthered color TV
"Sarnoff's law"
President, DuMont Corporation
1st commercially viable TV
1st licensed TV network
21.
Creative Artists
Playwrights
such as
Arthur Miller
and
Paddy Chayevsky
introduced Americans to high drama in programs like Kraft Television Theater, Studio One, and the Actors Studio, beginning in 1947.

22.
Journalists
John Cameron Swayze
introduced America to weekday news programming via the Camel Newsreel Theater in 1948.

Wired, Zapped, and Beamed
The 1960's through 1980's

New Technologies 1960-1980

23. Satellite delivery of programming

Telstar, 1962
24. Color programming




At start of period, color tv was introduced, but little color programming.
By 1967, most network programming in color.
By 1972 half of US households had color TV.

25. Growth of cable TV (fiber optic cable).

The introduction of efficient fiber optic cable in 1970
by Corning's Robert Maurer, Donald Keck, and Peter Schultz also improved the delivery of television programming to American homes and businesses.
These transparent rods of glass or plastic are stretched so they are long and flexible and transmit information digitally using rapid pulses of light. This breakthrough work allowed cable to be created that could carry
65,000 times

more
information than conventional copper wire.



In 1972 the Phillips Corporation introduced video cassette recording (VCR) for the home.

26. Home videotaping
From this concept Sony introduced the Betamax format of VCR in 1976 at a suggested retail price of $1,295.

A year later RCA introduced the 1st VHS format VCR in America.

By 1985 the VHS format dominated the U.S. home market.

27. HDTV introduced

Believe it or not, High Definition Television was developed by Panasonic in 1974, in Japan.
28. What is PBS? When and why was it created?

Public Broadcasting Service (PBS).

PBS was established by Congress in 1967, by passing the Public Broadcasting Act.
This is for educational programming.
Non-commercial.

Digitally Networked
1990's Through Today

New Technologies
1990-now
29. Closed captioning
for the hearing impaired

30. V-chips for parental controls

31. DVRs (time shifting)








Allow viewer to record a show and view when they are ready to view.

1990
1996
1999
When did the government establish and plan for a transition from analog to digital transmission of the television signal?

In 1994, HDTV standards were established and a plan for the transition from analog to digital transmission of television programming was rolled out throughout the decade.



Nielsen and Digital Conversion

What is “Nielsen”? What do they do?

a global information and measurement company
they measure television audiences, and collect other data.





What is a “ready” and “unready” set?


What were two characteristics of “unready” TV sets?


Overall, what was the benefit of the digital conversion?



On June 12, 2009, the FCC required all high-power analog U.S. television stations to turn off their signals and move to a digital-only transmission.


The Conversion
Nielsen data shows unprepared homes were more likely to be lower income, were less likely to have Internet access, and owned TVs they rarely used.
Ready for the conversion (newer TV or converter box


vs.


Not ready (older, not used, no box)
super sharp high-definition programming

the ability to show multiple standard definition digital programs simultaneously

more channels than ever before
The future?


32. What happened on June 12, 2009?
Full transcript