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Inquiry based learning in the classroom

Keynote at AIP Conference in Genova, 21 September 2011
by

Jos Beishuizen

on 20 September 2016

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Transcript of Inquiry based learning in the classroom

A Chemistry Research Community
The nature of inquiry based learning
Intrinsic Motivation
Development of scientific reasoning
Peers in inquiry based learning
Training of reasoning skills
Inquiry-based Learning in the Classroom
Jos Beishuizen
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
j.j.beishuizen@vu.nl

Expectancy
Autonomy and structure
In order to start inquiry-based learning students should be aware of a discrepancy between expectations and reality
The awareness of a discrepancy between expectations and reality enhances curiosity: intrinsic motivation to inquire
Self-efficacy enhances expectancy: extrinsic motivation to inquire
The ability to distinguish theory from evidence is a prerequisite to benefit from inquiry based learning
Peer collaboration serves individual understanding
Inquiry-based learning is based on a delicate balance between autonomy and structure
Children can be trained to improve their reasoning skills for inquiry-based learning
Important
Concepts
Models
Research
Methods
Mental Model
Cognitive Conflict
Cognitive Change
Assimilation
Accommodation
1. Activation of a Mental Model
2. Awareness of Anomalous Data
3. Assimilation: Anomalous Data as Exceptions of the Model
4. Awareness of Cognitive Conflict
5. Instability of the Model
6. Accommodation through Restructuring of the Mental Model, Conceptual Change, Knowledge Building
Wu & Hsieh (2006): Developing Sixth Graders Inquiry Skills to Construct Explanations in Inquiry-based Learning Environments, International Journal of Science Education, 28:11, 1289-1313
Two sixth grade science classroom elementary school, 58 sixth graders, 12 years of age.
Six learning activities:
1. Who runs faster?
2. What makes a ping-pong ball run faster?
3. How can we draw a motion?
4. What's inside an electric motor?
5. Let's buils an electric motor
6. How can we increase the rotation speed of an electric motor?
15 class periods (over 6 weeks) to finish
Four skills:
1. Identifying causal relations.
2. Describing the reasoning process
3. Using data as evidence,
4. Evaluate explanations
1. Inquiry based learning
2. The Student
4. The Teacher
3. The Learning Environment
5. The Community of Learners
Brown & Campione, 1996
Empirical Cycle (De Groot, 1969)
A Nested Model of Inquiry Learning
The Mind's Staircase
From unstructured to relational
Kuhn
From belief mode to design mode
Bereiter
Wilhelm, Beishuizen, & Van Rijn (2005)
Robbie Case
Stadium 0: Predimensional
Stadium 1: Unidimensional
Stadium 2: Bidimensional
Stadium 3: Bidimensional, with Elaboration
1. Realist: Assertions copy reality
2. Absolutist: Assertions about reality can be correct/incorrect
3. Multiplist: Assertions are freely chosen opinions
4. Evaluative: Assertions are judgments that can be evaluated
1. Belief mode: Right or wrong
2. Design mode: Trial and improvement
Growth in:
1. Translating data into valid statements about causality
2. Dealing with interactions
3. Planning
Many Facets
1. Curiosity, challenge, fantasy are driving forces.
2. Knowledge is the end goal of curiosity,
but thinking, exploration, and problem solving are not necessarily pleasurable.

Reiss, S. (2004). Multifaceted nature of intrinsic motivation: the theory of 16 basic desires. Review of General Psychology, 8, 3, 179-193.
Curiosity has to be evoked
1. Teacher or visiting expert introduces new concepts.
2. Adult helps the group to find higher order relations.
3. Adult models reasoning with incomplete information.
4. Adult asks the group to summarize what is known and what still needs to be discovered, setting new learning goals.

Brown, A.L., Ellery, S., & Campione, J.C. (1998). Creating zones of proximal development electronically. In J.G. Greeno & S.V. Goldman (Eds.). Thinking Practices in Mathematics and Science Learning (pp. 341 - 369). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
A Chemistry Research Community
Benchmark Lessons
10 upper secondary students, teachers, researchers.

Week 1: Getting to know the research content and community.
Week 2: Building, modelling and predicting the bonding capacity of ligands.
Week 3: Synthesising a ligand.
Week 4: Purifying and determining purity of the ligand.
Week 5: Discussing the bonding capacities.
Week 6: Preparing poster and presentation.
Method
Results
Attitude Questionnaire:

Positive change:
I like to learn how to do scientific research
I like to do scientific research
Doing scientific research is dull
I wish we could do more investigative work in class
I wish to have a scientific career

No change:
Doing scientific research needs patience
Doing scientific research is hard work
Doing scientific research is cumbersome
All scientific research is interesting
I like hearing about scientific research on TV
I find scientific research interesting
Van Rens, L., Van Muijlwijk, J., Beishuizen, J. and Van der Schee, J (2011). Upper Secondary Chemistry Students in a Pharmacochemistry Research Community, International Journal of Science Education, DOI:10.1080/09500693.2011.591845
Results
Method
Self-efficacy
Self-efficacy benefits from mastery of cognitive and metacognitive strategies
Lessons Learned
Design Principles
The Sparkling School
Research Results
Conclusions
In order to start inquiry-based learning students should be aware of a discrepancy between expectations and reality
The ability to distinguish theory from evidence is a prerequisite to benefit from inquiry based learning
The awareness of a discrepancy between expectations and reality enhances curiosity: intrinsic motivation to inquire
Self-efficacy enhances expectancy: extrinsic motivation to inquire
Children can be trained to improve their reasoning skills for inquiry-based learning
(1) Serious partnership in the process of knowledge development
(2) Knowledge development occurs by doing scientic research
(3) Big ideas in the relevant science domain are central
(4) Acquaintance with collaboration and communication skills in a research community
(5) Critical judgement by reflection
(6) Access to scientific resources and equipment

Brown & Campione (1996); Beishuizen (2008)
Van Rens, Van Muijlwijk, Beishuizen, & Van der Schee (2011)
Manlove, Lazonder, De Jong (2009)

Upper secondary students.
Inquiring fluid dynamics problem
in simulation environment (Co-Lab)

Process coordinator (PC):
Planning tool: goal tree
Monitoring tool: note pad, hints
Evaluation tool: lab report template

Only planning tool did help.
Problem: lack of domain-specific knowledge
Windschitl & Andre (1998)

Students, studying human cardiovascular system.
Free exploration versus direct instruction.
Students with advanced epistemological views performed better under free exploration.
Students with simple epistemological views
performed better under direct instruction.
Mason & Santi (1998):

Does collaborative reasoning improves indvidual understanding? Is understanding related to metacognitive awareness?

22 fifth graders (10-11 years of age). Trained teachers. Small group discussions about greenhouse effect. Various points of view compared and contrasted in large group discussions.

Collaborative learning advanced individual understanding. Understanding and awareness correlated.
Mason (1998):

Talking to learn (small and large groups) and writing to learn (individual) in papers written after group interactions.
12 students in fourth and fifth grade, nine months. Ecological concepts like interdependence, ecosystem, habit, food chain, food web, population size. Experienced science teacher.

Written texts contained ideas from group discussions. Students explained how their original ideas were revised through group discussion. Students appreciated both modes of learning: talking-to-learn and writing-to-learn.
Beishuizen, Wilhelm, Schimmel (2004)

Can 62 sixth graders (9-10 years) be trained to acquire inquiry learning skills? Or is practice sufficient?

Plant Growing Task and Food Task.

Training: off-line one hour individual session on learning how to interpret outcomes of experiments in terms of main effects, interaction effects and irrelevant outcomes. Focus on Control of Variables Strategy (CVS). Two on-line inquiry learning tasks.
Practice: four on-line inquiry learning tasks.

Both training and practice resulted in better performance.
Training group better in discovering an interaction effect.
Practice and training effects dependent on type of domain.
Inquiry-based learning is based on a delicate balance between autonomy and structure
Peer collaboration serves individual understanding
1. Cognitive conflict as point of departure.
2. Dilemma: knowledge first or inquiry first?
3. Interest and expectancy do benefit from inquiry learning.
4. The balance between autonomy and structure is crucial.
5. Peers and teachers can support inquiry-based learning.
Anomalous Data
10 upper secondary students, teachers, researchers.

Week 1: Getting to know the research content and community.
Week 2: Building, modelling and predicting the bonding capacity of ligands.
Week 3: Synthesising a ligand.
Week 4: Purifying and determining purity of the ligand.
Week 5: Discussing the bonding capacities.
Week 6: Preparing poster and presentation.
De Groot, A. D. (1969). Methodology: Foundations of inference and research in the behavioral sciences. The Hague: Mouton.
Brown, A. L., & Campione, J. C. (1996). Psychological theory and the design of innovative learning environments: On procedures, principles, and systems. In L. Schauble & R. Glaser (Eds.), Innovation in learning: New environments for education (pp. 289-325). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Case, R. (1991). The mind's staircase. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
Kuhn, D. (1989). Children and adults as intuitive scientists. Psychological Review, 96, 4, 674-689.
Bereiter, C., and Scardamalia, M. (2003). Learning to work creatively with knowledge. In De Corte, E., Verschaffel. L., Entwistle, N., & Van Merriënboer, J. (Eds.). Powerful Learning Environments: Unravelling basic components amd dimensions (pp. 55-69). Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd.
Wilhelm, P., Beishuizen, J.J., and Van Rijn, H. (2005). Studying inquiry learning with FILE. Computers in Human Behavior, 21, 933-943.
Van Rens, L., Van Muijlwijk, J., Beishuizen, J. and Van der Schee, J (2011). Upper Secondary Chemistry Students in a Pharmacochemistry Research Community, International Journal of Science Education, DOI:10.1080/09500693.2011.591845
Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T., & Mckeachie, W. J. ( 1993). Reliability and predictive validity of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53, 801-813.
Manlove, S., Lazonder, A. W., and de Jong, T. (2006). Regulative support for collaborative scientic inquiry learning. Journal of Computer Assisted
Learning, 22 , 87-98.
Windschitl, M., and Andre, T. (1998). Using computer simulations to enhance conceptual change: The roles of constructivist instruction and student epistemological beliefs. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35, 2, 145 – 160.
Mason, L. (1998). Sharing cognition to construct scientific knowledge in school context: the role of oral and written discourse. Instructional Science, 26, 5, 359 – 389.
Mason, L., and Santi, M. (1998). Discussing the greenhouse effect: children’s collaborative discourse reasoning and conceptual change. Environmental Education Research, 4, 1, 67 – 85.
Beishuizen, J.J., Wilhelm, P., & Schimmel, M. (2004). Computer-supported Inquiry Learning: Effects of training and practice. Computers and Education, 42, 4, 398 - 402.
Brown, A. L., & Campione, J. C. (1996). Psychological theory and the design of innovative learning environments: On procedures, principles, and systems. In L. Schauble & R. Glaser (Eds.), Innovation in learning: New environments for education (pp. 289-325). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Beishuizen, J. (2008). Does a community of learners foster self-regulated learning? Technology, Pedagogy, and Education, 17, 3, 183 - 193.
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