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Transcript of LEADERSHIP
Group 1: Leadership
a) leader-followers relation
To become a leader, one must always put others first and keep trying to improve with the ever-changing era
MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP ROLES
1. Providing Objective Direction
Cherie Nicole Anak Haddy (PET 110012)
Sarah Choong Ee Mei (PET 110047)
5 Key Elements of Leadership:
Leadership = ability to affect the behaviour of others in a particular direction and thus influencing outcomes.’’ (Hall, 2007)
The dyadic relationship between the leader and follower (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995)
d) organizational objectives
2. Emotional Well-Being
3. Deciphering Information
Leaders need to be
- "strategy is the determination of long-term goals of an enterprise through planning and strategy. '' (Chandler, 1962)
Employee-oriented leaders need to be ‘‘
’’ by garnering dyadic interpersonal support from subordinates (Pescosolido, 2002)
Leaders have a duty to be
by monitoring, sharing and disseminating ‘‘intel’’ to the organization (Frost, 2012)
THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE LEVELS OF LEADERSHIP ANALYSIS
The Development of Leaders and Succession Planning: Developing Leadership Skills
The Impact of Leadership on Organizational Performance
Great Man Theory
emphasizes that leaders are born and not bred. They believe that certain traits constitute great leaders and that greatness is pre-determined upon birth.
both claim that leaders can be made through experiential learning and observation. Therefore, leaders can be trained and bred.
show operational differences in leaders. Transactional leadership adopts rewards and organizational structure while transformational leadership depends on the leader’s charisma
4. Nichols, A. L. (2014). What do people desire in their leaders? The role of leadership level on trait desirability
5. Dinh, J. E. (2014). Leadership theory and research in the new millennium: current theoretical trends and changing perspectives
6. Collins, B. J. (2014). Gender differences in the impact of leadership styles on subordinate embeddedness and job satisfaction
The Challenges of Leadership
environmental or situational
• Morelli (2014):
to overcome challenges:-
i. make personal connections
ii. build important relationships
iii. interact face to face
iv. be open, transparent and authentic
v. develop model integrity with the right intent
vi. act on feedback and deliver results
• Great leaders are naturally born with intrinsic traits and specific skills
• Believes that certain qualities and characteristics constitute great leaders.
For example: dominance, intelligence, assertiveness, persistence
The Behavioral Theory
Leaders can be made and not necessarily born through proper teaching and observation
The Contingency Theory
Similar to Situational Leadership theory
Leaders undergo decision-making based on situational variables
Different leadership styles suit different situations (i.e. cases of emergency)
The Transactional Theory
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory by Dansereau, Graen, and Haga (1975)
Mutual understanding through organizational hierarchy
Motivation: reward and/or punishment systems
Priority: Administering order and stability within the organization.
By James MacGregor Burns (1978)
Motivation: Leader's charisma and inspiration
Priority: to impact their organizations via sharing visions and portraying leadership through example.
The Great Man Theory
• Popularized by Thomas Carlyle -
On Heroes, Hero-Worship and the Heroic in History
• Great men are simply "born to lead’’ with leadership traits in-built into them
• Leaders cannot be made or trained
The Traits Theory
Leaders of Consideration
Leaders of Structure
The Transformational Theory
Leadership Theory Paradigms
= "leaders and followers make each other advance to a higher level of morality and motivation."
of how leaders are perceived by the society which contributes to the achievement of an organization.
• Types of leadership paradigm:
a) Trait Theory paradigm
b) Behavioural Theory paradigm
c) Contingency theory paradigm
d) Integrative Theory paradigm
Trait Theory paradigm
• distinctive characteristics of an ideal leader.
• Stogdill (1974)
leadership traits: assertiveness, ability to cooperate, adaptability to situations, decisiveness and dominance.
leadership skills: knowledgeable, creative, diplomatic, fluent, persuasive and socially skilled.
Behavioral Theory paradigm
• action that suggests behavioral patterns identified as leadership styles
• good leadership skills - learnt through observation and training
= ''The relationship between leader and the subordinates in achieving common goals''
• Mintzberg’s managerial roles:
Contingency theory paradigm
• effectiveness of a particular leadership style is dependent upon the context in which it is practiced
Different situations, different leadership styles
3 important aspects
of leadership effectiveness:
i. relationship between the leaders and followers: greater bond, greater support
ii. task structure: better organization, clearer objective, greater influence.
iii. position power: greater control, greater influence
Comparing management and leadership
“managers and leaders go hand-in-hand because both must be integrated effectively to achieve a high performance”.
i. the organization of a detailed schedule to achieve a specific result or accomplishment
ii. delegation of workforce to achieve a set of goal.
iii. focuses on short-term goals
i. creates a vision for the future through challenges and opportunities.
ii. leaders develop strategies to implement change to achieve vision.
iii. focuses on long-term goals
• Northouse (2007)
Management: produces order and consistency
Leadership: brings about change and movement.
(Jeremy et al., 2011) Leader-follower relationship and performance standard is highly influence by leadership style
• Types of leaders:
• Use impressive communication strategy to attract followers and gain loyalty.
• Followers strive to produce quality work based on leaders’ expectations and their unshakeable confidence.
• (Canella and Monroe, 1997): Emphasizes on the importance of leaders' relationships with followers
• Help followers achieve goals encourage them to be open and adaptive to enhanced practices in a changed environment (Azka et al., 2011
• punishment and reward system
• a motivation to produce quality performance in the organization.
- process of identification and development of potential future leaders/managers and the process of filling in organizational position in the short or long term.
Zhang, Y., Chen, C. C. (2014) Developmental leadership and organizational citizenship behavior: Mediating effects of self-determination, supervisor identification, and organizational identification
Development of OCB through developmental leadership based on three-levels of self-concept: self-determination, supervisor identification and organizational identification
Practice proper leadership style to establish good rapport with subordinates to achieve OCB.
O'Connell, P. K., (2014) A simplified framework for 21st century leader development
Suggested framework of effective leadership based on the five webs of belief: learning, reverence, service, authenticity, and flaneur.
Base their leadership skill on the proposed framework due to its holistic concept.
Tskhay, K. O., Xu, H., & Rule, N. O., (2014) Perceptions of leadership success from nonverbal cues communicated by orchestra conductors.
How an orchestra functions with the mere gestural cue by the conductor. Older, more expressive = more famous and successful.
In a meeting, leaders conduct the discussion well by delivering thoughts and concerns in an organized and appropriate manner .
Researches of Leadership and their Application in Malaysia
Researches of Leadership and their Application in Malaysia
Oracle White Paper (June 2013):
to develop leadership skills:-
1. Determine the best leadership style for your organization
2. Identify current and potential leaders within the company
3. Identify leadership gaps
4. Develop succession plans for critical roles
5. Develop career planning goals for potential leaders
6. Develop a skills roadmap for future leaders
7. Develop retention programs for current and future leaders
- performs social, legal and ceremonial duties as a symbol of prestige and authority
- motivates subordinates through overseeing progress, promoting and encouraging their development
- develops and maintains a network of external contacts to gather information and build knowledge bases
- represents the organization (eg: speeches, reports)
- monitors team’s productivity and well-being.
- communicates potentially useful information to colleagues and team.
- creates and control change within the organization (eg: solves problems, generate new ideas, and implements them)
- manages dispute and disagreement
- determines where organizational resources are best applied in (eg: allocation of funding, assignment of staffs, etc)
- takes part in and directs important negotiations within the team or organization.
Hershey and Blanchard (1977) Contingency Theory model:
Low willingness and low ability
Defines followers’ tasks and supervise them closely.
Low willingness but high ability
Leaders motivate and building followers’ confidence.
High willingness but low ability
Leaders define roles and tasks clearly but seeks ideas and suggestions from followers.
High willingness and high ability
Less need to support and praise followers but occasional recognition is encouraged.
d) Integrative Theory paradigm
• combination of the Trait, Behavioural and Contingency theory = successful and influential leader-follower relationship
• there is no one theory which is implemented that is sufficient to produce a successful leader.
obtained through training & observation
achievement motivation, social skills, social adjustment, dominance, reasoning, and creativity
Logical reasoning, originality, social sensitivity, information ordering, critical thinking skills, organizational skills
Mumford, O’Connor, Clifton, Connelly, and Zaccaro (1991)
Friedman, Fleishman, and Fletcher (1992)
dominant, persuasive and assertive skills
Social skills, cooperative and diplomatic skills
Judge (2004) and Burke (2006)
The ability to inspire behavioral change among people
Great leaders inspire their people to reach higher, dream bigger, and achieve greater.
To set clear goals and objectives for the organization to follow
SPOT THE LEADER
sociable traits (i.e. cooperativeness & agreeableness) - desired in low-level leaders
dominant traits (i.e. assertiveness & extraversion) - desired in high-level leaders
Better human resource management
emerging leadership theories from leader-centred theories towards social-centred theories
Malaysian companies should be aware of the emergence of entrepreneurial leadership & E-leadership
(i.e. LMX-Affection, LMX-Loyalty) + Agentic Leadership
(i.e. LMX-Contribution, LMX-Professional Respect)
Better dyadic relationship with employees