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Radiation History Timeline
Transcript of Radiation History Timeline
X-rays are a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves. X-ray imaging creates pictures of the inside of your body. The images show the parts of your body in different shades of black and white. This is because different tissues absorb different amounts of radiation. Calcium in bones absorbs x-rays the most, so bones look white. Fat and other soft tissues absorb less, and look gray. Air absorbs the least, so lungs look black
First observation notes that radioactivity can induce tissue and organ damage.
George Perthes discovers that x‑rays can inhibit the growth of tumors and proposes the use of x‑rays in the treatment of cancer.
Victor Hess discovers that the ionization of air increases with altitude, indicating the existence of cosmic radiation
Max von Laue demonstrates that x‑rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation that creates diffraction patterns with crystals.
Charles Lauritsen develops high-voltage x-ray machine for radiation therapy.
The Manhattan Project is formed to secretly build the atomic bomb.
Great Britain explodes its first atomic bomb.
China explodes its first atomic bomb.
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. (2012, October). Highlights in Radiation Research-A Timeline. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science: lowdose.energy.gov/timeline.aspx
U.S. National Library of Medicine. (2014, May 7). X-Rays. Retrieved from MedlinePlus: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/xrays.html
Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderlund, L., Paiz, J., Keck, R., & Brizee, A. (2013, March 1). General format. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2011, March 22). Gamma Rays. Retrieved from Mission: Science: http://missionscience.nasa.gov/ems/12_gammarays.html
Ziemer, P., Kathern, R. (2005). The First Fifty Years of Radiation Protection. Retrieved from The Health Physics Society: http://www.umich.edu/~radinfo/introduction/50yrs.htm
The RandomHouse College Dictionary (revised ed.).(1982). New York, N.Y.: Random House, Inc..
Snowden, B. (2013, October). The Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Retrieved from FactMonster: http://www.atomcentral.com/hiroshima-nagasaki.aspx
Foner, E., & Garraty, J. (1991). Three Mile Island. Retrieved from History.com: http://www.history.com/topics/three-mile-island
World Nuclear Association. (2014, April). Chernobyl Accident 1986. Retrieved from http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/safety-and-security/safety-of-plants/chernobyl-accident/
Antoine-Henri Becquerel discovers rays produced by uranium, the first observation of natural radioactivity.
H.S. Ward publishes first textbook on radiation, Practical Radiography.
Nuclear reactor at the power plant located at Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania, experiences a meltdown.
Pierre and Marie Curie discover radioactivity. They also discover polonium and announce the existence of another new radioactive element which they name radium.
Paul Ulrich Villard discovers gamma rays.
Fritz Geisel, Antoine-Henri Becquerel, and Marie Curie prove that beta rays consist of high-speed electrons.
Ernst Rutherford discovers that radioactivity from uranium has at least two different forms, which he calls alpha and beta rays.
Theodor Wulf measures radiation levels at the top and bottom of the Eiffel Tower and notes that radiation increases with height.
Hans Geiger unveils his radiation detector.
First radiation tolerance dose proposed by Arthur Mutscheller for use as a guide to limiting exposure of an individual to radiation.
By Stefani Fallabeck
Lise Meiter, who worked with Otto Hahn on splitting the uranium atom, leaves Austria as World War II is beginning and goes to Sweden. She publishes a paper on the work she did with Hahn, and this paper stimulates the drive to produce the atomic bomb.
First atomic bomb is exploded in the desert near Alamagordo, New Mexico.
Second atomic bomb named "Little Boy" is dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima.
Third atomic bomb named "Fat Man" is dropped on the Japanese city of Nagasaki.
USSR explodes its first atomic bomb.
The United States explodes the first airborne hydrogen bomb over Bikini Atoll in the Pacific.
France explodes its first atomic bomb.
India explodes its first atomic bomb.
A nuclear reactor located at a power plant in the Ukrainian city of Chernobyl experiences a meltdown releasing massive quantities of radioactive material.
Pakistan explodes its first nuclear bomb.
Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen discovered x-rays.
A gamma ray is a photon of penetrating electromagnetic radiation (gamma radiation) emitted from an atomic nucleus.
A beta ray is a stream of electrons or positrons emitted from an atomic nucleus in a certain type of radioactive decay and an alpha ray is a stream of positively charged particles consisting of two protons and two neutrons.
Cosmic radiation is radiation coming from outside the solar system.
Geiger's detector was named Geiger counter which measured radiation.
Mutscheller's limit was equivalent to about 0.2 rem per day.
The atomic bomb is also called fission bomb. It is a type of bomb in which the energy is provided by nuclear fission. Uranium-235 and plutonium-239 are the isotopes most commonly used in atomic bombs.
The Manhattan project was a U.S. research project that produced the first atomic bombs.
"Little Boy" was a uranium bomb. "Fat Man" was a plutonium bomb. Combined, they killed 110,000 people.
A combination of stuck valves, misread gauges and poor decisions led to the Three Mile Island disaster.
The Chernobyl accident was the result of a flawed reactor design that was operated with inadequately trained personnel.