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The Duel For North America
Transcript of The Duel For North America
Alice Lee Chapter 6: The Duel for America France Finds Foothold in Canada Background France was late in the scramble for New World due to its foreign wars and domestic strife.
A new era began in 1598 when the Edict of Nantes was issued which limited religious toleration to French Protestants.
Religious wars decreased and France was led by King Louis XIV - Enthroned as a 5 year old, he was interested in overseas colonies.
Samuel de Champlain aka "Father of New France" had friendly relations with the Huron indian tribes and helped them in a battle against the Iroquois tribes.
Frances relationship with the Iroquois tribes ended and they destroyed French settlement.
The government of New France (Canada) was a autocratic. People could not elect representative assemblies and didn't like the right to trail by jury.
Population grew and Huguenots desired to move unlike the French Protestants.
The French liked the Caribbeans Island colonies because it was rich with sugar and rum. Right before the 17th century, the competition in North America with England, France,Spain , and Native Americans was going on.
From 1688 to 1763 were four world wars which one of them was the Seven years War.
Other wars such as French and Indian War were one of the factors that led to America's independence. New France Fans Out Proclamation of 1763 in Detail - Pontiac, chief of the Ottawas, led multiple tribes and a few French traders against the British after the Spanish were removed from Florida
- No longer able to play Britain and Spain off against each other
- Goal was to flush them out of the Ohio Country
- Captured all but three British forts west of the Appalachian Mountains
- British viciously retaliated and distributed blankets infected with smallpox to the natives
- Effectively crushed the uprising by forcing a shaky truce.
- Reminded the British of the importance of a stable relationship with the natives. - Attempted to prevent another bloody uprising
- English government issued The Proclamation of 1763 which restricted the settlement of areas beyond the Appalachian Mountains
- Many angry Americans ignored the proclamation and headed west
- Due to new vision of their destiny created by the Seven Years' War
-They felt that the land beyond the Appalachians was their birthright because they had paid for it in casualties The Clash Of Empires Vocabulary Terms domestic - Concerning the internal affairs of a country.
minister - In politics, a person appointed by the head of state to take charge of some department or agency of government.
autocratic - Marked by strict authoritarian rule, without consent or participation by the populace.
peasant - A farmer or agricultural laborer, sometimes legally tied to the land.
coureurs des bois - French-Canadian fur trappers; literally, "runners of the woods."
voyageurs - French-Canadian explorers, adventurers, and traders.
flotilla - A fleet of boats, usually smaller vessels.
ecological - Concerning the relations between the biological organisms and their environment. mutinous Concerning revolt by subordinate soldiers or seamen against their commanding officers.
strategic Concerning-the placement and planned movement of large-scale military forces so as to gain advantage, usually prior to actual engagement with the enemy.
guerilla warfare Unconventional combat waged by small military units using hit-and-run tactics.
sallies (sally)- In warfare, very rapid military movements, usually by small units, against an enemy force or position.
siege- A military operation of surrounding and attacking a fortified place, often over a sustained period.
regulars- Trained professional soldiers, as distinct from militia or conscripts.
commissions- An official certification granting a commanding rank in the armed forces. Braddock's Blundering and Its Aftermath The clashes of the French and Indian War went badly for the British colonists
General Braddock, an officer experienced in European warfare, was sent to Virginia with British regulars
They set out in 1755 with about 2,000 men to capture Fort Duquesne
Their expedition moved slowly
Braddock encountered a smaller French and Indian army, and then came a murderous fire
George Washington was an aide to Braddock
The British force lost and had to leave
Washington desperately tried to defend the scorche frontier
The British invaded Canada in 1765 Restless Colonists War's Fateful Aftermath Important Resource: the beaver
European Fashion settlers valued beaver pelt hats for warmth + appearance
This job was done by "coureurs de bois" (runners of the woods)
French "voyagers" recruited Indians into fur business
Indian fur flotilla in 1693 was a fail because Indians had white man diseases & killing beavers violated Indian region-this showed how Indians + European traditions cannot be shared
French trappers traveled across continent - almost extinct beavers
French Catholic missionaries(Jesuits too) tried to save Indians
To check Gulf of Mexico, Robert de Salle floated to Mississippi- named it Louisiana in honor of Louis XIV
He returned to Gulf of Mexico with ships but couldn't find the Mississippi Delta and led in Spanish Texas(later murdered by his men)
French officials - want to block Spanish from Gulf
Mississippi + Louisiana=planted posts
Mouth of Mississippi River=fur trade King George’s War(War of League of Augsburg) & Queen Anne’s War (War of Spanish Succession)
British colonists vs. French coureurs de bois
Used guerilla warfare(hit and run)
Spain allied with France
British colonists failed in sallies against Quebec and Montreal, but got victory when they seized stronghold of Port Royal in Acadia(Nova Scotia)
Treaty of Utrecht in 1713
France and Spain ally were badly beaten
Britain got Acadia, Newfoundland, and Hudson Bay
British also won limited trading rights in Spanish America
Caused much friction over smuggling
War of Jenkins’s Ear
1739-British vs. Spaniards
Soon led to large-scale King George’s War(War of Austrian Succession)
France allied w/Spain again
British captured French fortress of Louisbourg
Peace treaty of 1748
Gave back Louisbourg Map of North America 1713 Pitt's Palms of Victory Britain brought forth a leader, William Pitt, who was known as the "Great Commoner" and the "Organizer of Victory"
He dispatched an expedition in 1758 against Louisbourg
He chose the 32 year-old officer James Wolfe to aide him on his expedition to Quebec
The armies faced each other on the Plains of Abraham
The Battle of Quebec in 1759 ranks as on one of the most important engagements in British and American history
Spain turned Florida over to Britain in return for Cuba
Great Britain emerged as the dominant power in North America George Washington Inaugurates War w/France Ohio Valley became chief bone of contention between French and British
For Britain, they could penetrate through it
For France, it was the key to the continent that the French had to retain
British were determined to fight for economic security and supremacy in North America
Rivalry for land in upper Ohio Valley brought tensions to snapping point
Virginians secured legal “rights” to some 500,000 acres in region…French were in process of erecting chain of forts commanding strategic Ohio River in the same area
Governor of Virginia sent George Washington to secure claims
In command of about 150 militiamen
Encountered small detachment of French men and fired first shots
French leader was killed and men retreated
French came back and surrounded Fort Necessity… forced to surrender on July 4th Global War and Colonial Disunity The fourth struggle, sometimes known as the French and Indian War, began in America
The Seven Years' War took place in America, Europe, West Indies, Philippines, Africa, and on the ocean
Frederick the Great won the title of "Great" by repelling the French, Austrian, and Russian armies
The London government sent him gold
"America was conquered in Germany" - William Pitt
In 1754, the British government summoned an intercolonial congress to Albany, New York
The purpose at Albany was to achieve greater defense against France
Benjamin Franklin published in the Pennsylvania Gazette, "Join, or Die"
Franklin was the leading spirit of the Albany Congress
The Albany delegates adopted the plan, although the colonies, as well as London rejected it
Franklin: all people agreed on the need for union, but their "weak noodles" were "perfectly distracted" when they attempted to agree on details British colonists had increased confidence in military strength
friction developed between British officers and colonial "boors"
British wouldn't recognize American militia commission above rank of captain
American shippers developed a golden traffic with Spanish and French West Indies
British authorities forbid export of all supplies from New England and middle colonies
some colonists wouldn't provide troops and money for the conflict
wanted rights and privileges of Englishman without duties and responsibilities
intercolonial disunity caused by huge distances, geographical barriers, conflicting regions, varied nationalities, different types of colonial governments, and boundary disputes
disunity began to disappear The removal of French menace in Canada affected American attitudes
History of U.S. began with the fall of Quebec and Montreal
French loss of American Empire would perhaps one day result in Britain’s loss of American Empire
Spanish & Indian menaces reduced
Spain eliminated from Florida, Spanish removal from Florida, French removal from Canada, and they were deprived of weapons
Ottawa chief Pontiac of 1763 led tribes and there was a violent campaign
British retaliated quickly and violently, uneasy truce to frontier
Pontiac perished in 1769
Land-hungry American colonists were free
London government issued Proclamation of 1763; not designed to oppress but to work out Indian problems fairly and to prevent uprisings
Americans were angry
7 Years’ War also caused colonists to develop a new vision of their destiny Smallpox British Fort Proclamation of 1763 in Detail Appalachian Mountains French and Indian War Seven Years' War British and American colonies William Pitt Pontiac's Uprisings in Detail