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The Murray Darling Basin and the Okavango Delta
Transcript of The Murray Darling Basin and the Okavango Delta
These actions make sure that farmers can survive by providing water to them, to their crops and their livestock and also makes sure that this National Icon is not damaged or abused in anyway. There are no disadvantages to these actions. The only possible disadvantage is that it may be a bit overreacting. LOCATION: BOTSWANA The Okavango Delta is located in Botswana Africa. It has an area of over 6,000-15,000 square km. Right beside the eastern banks of the Delta, is the Moremi Game Reserve which is a National Park that is visited by millions of tourists annually. OKAVANGO DELTA Physical Characteristics The Delta has a swampy like scenery. The colour of the delta is an emerald or dark green colour. It is proclaimed to be the jewel of Kalahari and is also said as Africa’s best Oasis. There are various forms of plants and animals that live around the Okavango Delta. There are over 450 species of birds and over 250 species of fish and reptile that live in the Delta. Some of the species of birds include Eagles, Vultures, and Cranes and also, the Okavango Delta contain species known to the area such as the Kalahari Robin and the African crake. Crocodiles and snakes also live in and around the Delta. The Okavango Delta has almost every species of Africa’s wild mammals. OKAVANGO DELTA Climate The climate around the Okavango delta is rather strange. This is because that it is the climate surrounding a water catchment. From December to February, it is hot and wet months with daytime temperatures as high as 40°C. There are also warm nights, and humidity levels between 50 and 80%. From March to May the temperature becomes far more comfortable with a maximum of 30°C during the day and mild to cool nights. The rains quickly dry up leading into the dry, cold winter months of June to August. Daytime temperatures at this time of year are mild to warm but the temperature begins to fall after sunset. Nights can be surprisingly cold in the Delta with temperatures barely above freezing. This may be seen as the reason behind the profuse greenery. The Okavango Delta has lush wetlands surrounding the river and is a very tranquil place. OKAVANGO DELTA Indigenous Land Management There are 5 groups that live near the Okavango Delta. These are called Hambukushu, Dxeriku, Wayeyi, Bugakwe and Xanekwe. All 5 groups have varied techniques to manage and use the land to their own needs. The Hambukushu, Dxeriku and the Bugakwe are found on the banks of the Okavango River in Angola and small numbers in Zambia. They and the Wayeyi group use river and forest resources. But the Xanekwe only use river resources. The Xanekwe, using fishing nets, catch fish which is their main food source. The Bugakwe and the Dxeriku uses natural tools such as wooden clubs or spears to hunt for food. They usually eat birds such as the Crane but do eat fish too. The Wayeyi and Bugakwe tribe also uses tools to hunt and collect food. Also all the groups eat natural food from trees such as berries and coconuts. There are many advantages that these groups have such as a sufficient food source and a good supply of water but they don’t really utilize the water really well as they have dug small channels throughout the river that lead off for 20-30 metres so that people can get water and use the river to wash things much safer. But this is not a real disadvantage so there are really no concerns regarding indigenous land management. OKAVANGO DELTA Modern Land Management These 5 groups have 2 main methods of water management in a modern way. These 2 key methods are infiltration and evapo-concentration.
Infiltration is the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil. The Infiltration rate is the measure of the rate at which the soil is able to absorb rainfall or irrigation. This is measured in inches per hour or millimetres per hour. The rate however decreases when the soil becomes saturated. If the precipitation rate passes the infiltration rate, the water will runoff unless there is a barrier. The infiltration rate can be measured using an infiltrometer.
This means the increase in salt in the water as it evaporates. Both of these techniques are used to keep the Okavango Delta free of unwanted chemicals so there are no disadvantages to these methods. MURRAY DARLING BASIN
Analysis MURRAY DARLING BASIN MAPS OKAVANGO DELTA MAPS WORLD MAP BIBLIOGRAPHY Source: Google Maps
Both Pictures Hand drawn Maps Source: Google Images Hand drawn Map Source: Google Maps Hand drawn Maps Title: Okanango Delta
Last date visited: 11/10/2012
URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Okavango_Delta Title: Rhino Africa Safaris
Last date visited: 11/10/12
URL: http://www.rhinoafrica.com/botswana/okavango-delta/facts-and-information Title: Nationally Threatened Birds of the Murray Darling Basin
Last date visited: 9/10/2012
URL: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/m-d-fact.html Title: Discover Murray
Last date visited: 28/09/2012
URL: http://www.murrayriver.com.au/about-the-murray/murray-darling-basin/ Title: Australian Bureau of Statistics
Last date visited: 11/10/2012
URL: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/4628.0.55.001Main%20Features60May%202012?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=4628.0.55.001&issue=May%202012&num=&view= Title: Murray Darling: Basin Authority
Last date visited:
URL: http://www.mdba.gov.au/services/education-resources/basin-info Title: Okavango. info
Last date visited: 11/10/2012
URL: http://www.okavango.info/botswana/okavango_moremi.html Thanks for Watching By Matthew Keith and T-Fresh Maps End Murray Darling Analysis:
WHAT ARE SIMILARITIES BETWEEN HOW THE BASIN WAS USED BY INDIGENOUS PEOPLE, AND HOW IT IS USED NOW:
The Murray Darling Basin is one of the most amazingly, significant agricultural area in Australia. The Basin stretches out through 4 states and is 1/7 of Australia’s land mass. The use of the Murray Darling has been effective in many ways. From the Indigenous to the Modern use of management, millions of people have treated and used this river extremely well. In the past, the Indigenous Australians respected the Murray Darling and treated it well. It provided them with a healthy source of food and a sufficient amount of water. With Modern Water Management, people still respect the basin and fight against those who abuse the area. With farmers needing the Basin to grow crops and provide water to their livestock which is what Indigenous Australians did. The only difference between the Indigenous methods and techniques used today is that now with advanced technology, we can use and manage the Murray Darling Basin more efficiently. From Indigenous actions, to Modern management, the Murray Darling Basin has always been respected and cared for and will carry on as one of Australia’s greatest National Icon’s and Landmarks. LLENGES/ISSUES TO BE FACED IN THE FUTURE:
There are several issues/challenges that the Murray-Darling Basin may have to face in the future. One of these challenges being the growing population of Australian citizens, and Australia’s tourists. This can be an issue, as not all Australians may realise how valuable and precious the Murray-Darling is to many people. The basin could be affected by pollution, and mistreatment. Another possible issue is the challenge of Climate Change. The Murray-Darling would be affected by this, in two separate situations. If excessive periods of heat and dryness occur, the water levels of the Basin would decrease dramatically. This could ultimately result in the drying out of the Basin. On the other hand, if excessive periods of rain and wetness occur, the Murray-Darling would over capacitate, and drastic flooding would be the result. This means that many valuable crops would drown, along with livestock, and thousands of farmer’s lives would be ruined. OKAVANGO DELTA Okavango Delta Analysis:
The Okavango Delta, located in Botswana, is said to be Africa’s Most Beautiful Oasis. This swampy like river with its lush wetlands and various fauna, gives a very tranquil and peaceful feel. The Delta is being used for many people. These include the Indigenous groups living close to the area. Their names are Hambukushu, Dxeriku, Wayeyi, Bugakwe and Xanekwe. With various hunting and collecting techniques, one thing these 5 groups have in common is the way they treat the Delta. They don’t abuse the Delta and the land around it and use it as their main water source as well as to particular tribes their main food source. They made sure that they were safe to wash their clothes or items by digging small channels throughout the river that lead off for 20-30 metres so they could get to the water easily which is an effective method. The groups however have also 2 modern techniques that also manage the water very well. These methods are Infiltration and Evapo-concentration. Infiltration involves water on the ground surface enters the soil. This is an extremely clever technique and so is Evapo-concentration. This process involves increase in salt in the water as it evaporates. Both of these techniques make sure that the Delta is clean and rid of bacteria and germs. CHALLENGES/ISSUES TO BE FACED IN THE FUTURE:
Challenges which the Okavango Delta, and its people may come across in the near or distant future, is the ongoing threat of global warming or climate change. Climate change can be utterly devastating, and the people are left helpless and can do nothing about it. The results of climate change could be excessive flooding, and long periods of heat and blistering sun. This can affect the people by forcing them to face conditions which they are unprepared for and could not survive. The excessive rain could mean over watering, and the death of live-stock, and the drowning of much valuable crops.