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Introduction to Applied Behaivour Analysis and Functional Assessment

What is Applied Behaviour Analysis and how is a Functional Assessment Completed?
by

Mela Dyment

on 24 February 2016

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Transcript of Introduction to Applied Behaivour Analysis and Functional Assessment

how does motivation influence behaviour?
people don't HAVE behaviour
to get their wants and needs met
what's missing?
Functional Assessment
determines the FUNCTION or underlying motivation for the behaviour
putting an intervention into place without knowing the motivation behind the behaviour is like treating an illness without knowing the diagnosis
"the consequences of an act affect the
probability that it will happen again"
motivation
skills
+
=
motivation
find the
a thorough functional assessment will help
determine what skill deficits
may be contributing to the problem
behaviour
teach new skills that allow the students to access the reinforcement without engaging in problem behaviour
set clear goals
J will learn to:
play 2 board games
play hide and go seek
ask adults to play with him
ask peers to play with him
set aside time for regular practice
every day following arrival
on the playground at morning and noon recess
after lunch
reinforce the new skills
motivation
?
he's so destructive!
all he does is throw and spit!

there needs to be a consequence!

he NEEDS to clean up!!!
I just LOVE Ms S

anytime I get bored all I have
to do is throw some stuff or spit
and she gets SO EXCITED!!!
she comes right over and we pick things up together!
sometimes I even get to use a spray bottle!
and then she reads me a STORY!!!
this behaviour is driving us
NUTS!
reinforcement
punishment
they USE behaviour
make the consequence meaningful
for the student
Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) aims to understand and improve human behaviour.

Applies principles of behaviour to learning and performance

All learned behaviour serves a function.
What is it?
B. F. Skinner
ANYTHING that increases
BEHAVIOUR
ANYTHING that decreases
BEHAVIOUR
what is BEHAVIOUR?
In addition to striving to provide an objective analysis of observable behaviour, as a field, ABA has developed many teaching techniques.

“Applied behaviour analysis is the science in which tactics derived from the principles of behaviour are applied systematically to improve socially significant behaviour and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for behaviour change.”
Cooper, Heron, and Heward (2007, p. 20)
evidence-based methodology for teaching
ANYBODY, ANYTHING!
Why is Applied Behaviour Analysis Controversial?
Complete a Functional Assessment Inventory
Collect Data
why collect data?
Analysis of the data is used to:
Measure the frequency, intensity and duration of behaviour
Clarify the operational definition
Help determine the function of behaviour
We are used to applying labels to people and their behaviours as a kind of shorthand

Pseudo-explanations often involving circular reasoning (e.g., ADHD—”Why is he ADHD? Because he is hyperactive and can’t pay attention.”  “Why is he hyperactive and can’t pay attention? Because he has ADHD.”)

These labels can be both misleading and dangerous as people want to treat the diagnosis or label rather than the behaviours or symptoms
Operational/Behavioural Definitions
identify what a behaviour is in terms of topography, intensity, duration, or other relevant dimensions,
identify what the behaviour isn’t or exceptions to the definition, and
create consistency in determining whether a particular behaviour occurred or not.
Define the Behaviour
4. a) knows colors
b) sorts red from green items

5. a) is hyperactive
b) does not sit still for more than 5 seconds
1. a) shows initiative
b) does extra chores

2. a) is dressed for school by 8:30
b) is dependable

3. a) does not finish tasks
b) becomes easily discouraged
Exercise: Choose the one that is more behavioural
why is this important?
how is the inventory used?
An effective Positive Behaviour Plan MUST include teaching replacement behaviour
If the function of the behaviour was to seek attention
and you withdraw attention as a consequence following the behaviour
the behaviour will go away
and the student will use a different behaviour to gain attention, whether it's adaptive or not!
Then what?
extinction
when behaviout is neither reinforced or punished it will...
disappear
Antecedent
Behaviour
Consequence
what happened immediately before ?
What happened immediately after?
be aware of the Setting Events
problem behaviour
teach
replacement
behaviour
change the
consequence
REINFORCE the replacement behaviour!
change the antecedent
The work of people like Watson, Thorndike and Skinner
helped lay the foundation for other evidence-based interventions
like Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy
Operant Behaviour
Respondant behaviour
how does Applied Behaviour Analysis work with Trauma Informed Practice?
learned behaviour, influenced by the environment
unlearned behaviour, automatic or reflexive, elicited by a specific stimulus
reinforcement?
punishment?
time out?
Talk about the behaviour?
+
-
+
-
Applied Behaviour Analysis
Why analyze behaviour?
an observable action
How is behaviour analyzed?
How is a functional assessment conducted?
How can we replace the behaviour
What are the functions of behaviour?
Sensory
Escape
Attention
Tangible
in other words...
what comes next?
develop a plan
ensure that the replacement behaviour allows the student to access MORE reinforcement that the problem behaviour
Full transcript