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Is Supplementation Necessary to Support Endurance Performance
Transcript of Is Supplementation Necessary to Support Endurance Performance
A review of 150 studies published on antioxidants and exercise training revealed that antioxidant supplements reduce the cells natural adaptive response to Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS).
(Peternelj & Coombes, 2011)
Training can have a positive effect.
High level antioxidant supplementation interferes with this.
Why take supplements?
To improve -
Muscle & fuel usage
Mental and cardio function
60-90% of UK athlete's take supplements.
(Casey, Hughes, Izard & Greeves, 2014)
Why take them?
insurance against ill health;
competitive edge in performance.
muscle & fuel usage
mental & cardio function
Serving Size: >7 fruit + vegetable servings per day
inc. vitamins C, E, beta-carotene and selenium
Why take them
To reduce oxidative stress,
To gain faster muscle recovery time
To improve performance and counter immunity + fatigue.
How does it work
Keeps free radicals in check. Reduces oxidative stress.
Antioxidants interfere & hinder the positive effect of training adaptations on the body.
Eat blueberries, garlic, green tea, broccoli, tomatoes & pomegranate.
500ml/d loaded over 6 days, 2.5 hours before event
How does it work
Vasodilator - causes smooth muscle to relax increasing blood flow
Beets are a very popular ergogenic aid with elite athletes.
Why take them
Beets benefit the recreational athlete over the trained athlete. .
Contain oxalates which prevent absorption of Ca and other minerals.
Get your nitrates through whole food options - Spinach, beets, beet juice, celery, lettuce, rocket.
Neogenis Sport, US &
James White Drinks, UK
..are the 2 market leaders in packaging beet for sport.
Neogenis Sport produce BeetEliteTM neo shot sachets that promise to deliver nitrate 3x faster through nitric oxide content of 6 beets in 1 shoot.
James White's Beet It Sport boasts 3000mg of dietary nitrate.
Other factors influencing performance
The desire for performance
the concept that a mixture of
non-random food components
work in concert to support life
of the organism and what eats it.
VITAMIN C + OAT PHYTOCHEMICALS = INCREASE LDL OXIDATION PROTECTION
GARLIC + FISH OIL = LOWERED TOTAL CHOLESTEROL, LDL CHOLESTEROL AND TRIGLYCERIDES
Lycopene has no pro-vitamin A activity, but it has a quenching rate twice as high as beta-carotene against singlet oxygen (Shi & Le Maguer, 2000).
Food as ergogenic aid
Raisins, dates, pineapple, mango
Raisins performed better over water in a 5km time trial promoting higher carbohydrate oxidation and improved running performance (Too et al., 2012).
Raisins are a viable alternative to commercial sports gels in pre exercise carb loading. No difference in performance seen. Insulin spiked more with the sports gel. (Kern, Heslin, & Rezende, 2007).
with a 6% carb drink on a 75-km cycling performance.
before and during prolonged and intensive exercise is an effective strategy for fuel substrate utilisation and cost, and for supporting performance.
(Nieman et al., 2012).
natural sports nutrition
in the form of traditional foods.
gels, super food fuel shakes including hemp and flax seeds for fat, chlorella and barley to alkalise, spirulina and hemp for restorative nutrition and turmeric as an anti inflammatory.
Research shows 50% omega 3 chia with a 50% carb solution (i.e. Gatorade) is a better option for carb loading when compared to 100% Gatorade pre >90 min event.
Performance was not affected but sugar consumption reduced. (Illian, Casey & Bishop, 2011).
In the context of sport, an ergogenic aid can be broadly defined as a technique or substance used for the purpose of enhancing performance.
Antioxidants are not seen to prevent fatigue or improve performance.
(Kavazis & Quindry, 2015)
Mitochondrial increase associated with endurance training is hindered with antioxidant supplementation.
Vit C (100mg/d) + Vit E (235mg/d) were studied on 54 recreational endurance runners. The study found that these doses interfered with cell signalling in a blunting effect of training adaptations (i.e. mitochondrial biogenesis).
There was no clear evidence for VO2 max and running performance.
Improvement was seen in fat oxidation and heart rates - but this was in the placebo group!
(Paulsen et al., 2014)
Research shows that drinking 500ml/d of beet juice for 6 days enabled athletes to run 15% longer before experiencing fatigue.
(Lansley, Winyard, Fulford, et al., 2011)
The same researchers found that 500ml 2.5 hours before a time trial test improved performance by 2.7% in club level cyclists.
Evidence on trained athletes inconclusive.
A meta-analysis review of research found no real difference when trialed on competitive cyclists.
(Lane, et al., 2014)
Serving Size: 3-6mg/kg body mass
How it works
Why take it
Know your tolerance
Avoid caffeine products
Avoid around meals <>1hr
Alkaloid compound that stimulates CNS. Absorbed & distributed rapidly in the body. Enhances performances through multifactorial effect in the body, including inhibition of adenosine receptors (which promotes sleep) and adrenaline secretion.
Serving Size: Low ethanol (10-20%) hydro/alcoholic mix
Alkylamids (0.25), cichoric acid (2.5), polysaccharides (25mg/L)
How it works
Active compounds work in synergy to exert immune modulating effect on body during infection and inflammation. i.e. increases macrophage activity.
Why take it
Counter effects of common cold and influenza
Preventative measures best.
Keep well nourished + adequate rest.
6 hours after intensive exercise - athlete most susceptible.
Purchase quality brand.
When correct formula used, 2 trials reported 23.1% lessening of symptoms. Echinacea purpurea most effective speces for UTRI - common in endurance athlete.
Electrolytes, inc sodium. Carbohydrates, glucose, fructose.
How does it work
Isotonic sports drink delivers electrolytes (400-500mg/L sodium) and sugar (40-80g/L), offering same concentration of dissolved particles as body fluids.
Why take it
Quench thirst and improve energy
Sodium in sports drinks do not benefit performance or speed fluid absorption.
Medium Chain Triglycerides
Serving Size: 18Tb coconut oil
How it works
MCTs are extracted through industrial process to separate MCT from rest of oil. MCT's are highly concentrated & accelerated into system for ketone production, an alternative fuel to glucose. They are transported to cells to create energy. Keto-adaptation can take 2-4 weeks of carbohydrate restriction.
Why take it
Shift fat and change body composition.
Avoid displacing real food with MCT.
MCTs are high in calorie and low in nutrients.
Evidence is mixed. When studied on recreational endurance runners, MCT was not seen to offer any performance enhancement, and showed a deterioration of blood lipid profiles.
Multi- Vit & Mineral, Vit & E
most popular supplement with athletes.
improve immunity against common cold or reduce fatigue.
Dietary reference intakes for most vits & mins are met by athletes.
Serving Size: sunshine on skin
Athletes demand iron.
Iron is lost in
gastroinestinal bleeding due to overuse of anti-inflammatories, and
mechanical trauma due to repetition running on hard surfaces.
Low dietary intake and bioavailability exacerbates low iron stores.
170 recreational athletes were studied for iron status.
1:6 men overload - 28% of women significantly low iron stores.
Excess iron promotes oxidative damage.
Deficiency in women due to menstruation + suboptimal diet intake.
Low iron results in poor immunity and utilisation of oxygen, resulting in fatigue and poor performance.
Protecting Iron Stores
Soak grains & legumes.
Assess stomach acid (HCL).
Include vitamin C rich foods at every meal to enhance iron absorption.
Add meat to a vegetable meal enhances iron absorbed from the vegetables.
Eat vitamin A rich foods (yellow, orange). Low vitamin A status can interfere with iron absorption.
Avoid coffee with meals by 1 hr.
Check iron status. In the case of deficiency, take a supplement under the advice of a health professional.
Vitamins + Minerals -
Poor Vitamin D status is linked to -
an increase for stress fractures. (Ruohola et al., 2006)
upper respiratory tract infections (Halliday, et al., 2011)
elevated systemic inflammatory markers
(Willis, Smith, Broughton & Larson-Meyer, 2012).
How to make sunshine..
Vitamin D is synthesised on exposed skin,
2 x day
5-30 mins in the absence of sun block
Hours of 10-3pm
Seasonally affected, and in latitudes of >35% north and south.
No one diet out performs the other in performance.
Plant based diets show no benefit or disadvantage over non vegetarian diets when studied in Indian female athletes. (Khanna, et al, 2006)
No significant differences in metabolic functions when studied on Israeli vegetarian + non-vegetarian athletes. (Hanne, et al., 1986)
High vegetable intake has shown to increase capillary pH during rest and submaximal exercise.
(Hietavala et al, 2015).
The need for protein
Kenyan + Ethiopian runners are mainly OLVD.
- Corn, beans, fruits, vegetables and some milk and eggs.
- Meat consumption is increased prior to a race.
- milk, porridge, omelet and bread.
LUNCH + DINNER
- Vegetables, grains, pasta, lentils, beans.
Lacto-ovo vegetarian (OLVD)
The ingestion of protein in the recovery phase post intensive exercise is seen as fundamental to assist the adaptive response in skeletal muscle.
(Van Vliet & Burd, 2015)
Improved fatty acid oxidation does not translate to enhanced performance capacity.
(Hawley, et al., 1998)
Fats can provide better energy source than carbohydrate, given the limit of carbohydrate stored in the body.
Research suggests females demonstrate a preference for fat as fuel over carbohydrates and protein. (Lamont, 2005)
NY State Attorney General
Walmarts, Target, GNC, Walgreens.
80% of products found to be contaminated.
Diet and performance
Athletes eat real food
just more of it
Nitrates convert to nitric oxide - a celllar signalling molecule. This communicates a signal to muscles to relax.
FDA determines -400mg/d to be safe upper limit. Optimal dose 3-6mg/kg body mass, with high doses of 9-15mg/kg BM offering no ergogenic effect + creating toxicity.
An 8-oz cup of coffee = 150mg of caffeine.
100g fresh apple = antioxidant activity of 1,500mg vitamin C.
Yet - actual vit C in 100g of apple only 5.7mg.
Vitmins & Minerals
8 healthy males were trialled for effctiveness of coconut water, water and a carb electrolyte beverage for hydration & blood volume.
Coconut water = less fullness, nausea & stomach upset, sweeter & easier to consume.
(Saat, et al., 2002)
Emerging research shows rinsing with a carb solution can benefit performance. (Burke & Maughan, 2015)
It works in the reward centre of brain through action on oral receptors for carbohydrate.
A healthier alternative without the calories!
- a fresh water, micro algae is rich in protein, amino acids, essential fats, phytochemicals + antioxidants. (Deng & Chow, 2010).
6g/d spirulina for 4 weeks on moderately trained runners demonstrated increased fat utilisation, reduction in antioxidant stress markers and increased endurance at high intensity, with 2 hours of running.
It's antioxidant capacity favorably effects substrate utilisation during exercise. This increases energy production.
(Kalafati et al., 2010)
Performance food, real food
Low fat chocolate milk
is an effective endurance recovery drink over a carb only beverage (Lunn et al., 2012).
It outperforms carb based sports drinks when trialed on endurance cyclists (Karp et al., 2006)
Milk is an effective rehydration drink due to its high electrolyte concentrations, its high energy density and its slow absorption.
Elite Ethiopian & Kenyan runners' fluid intake falls short of guidelines.
Yet they are not dehydrated.
Their food has a high water content.
Diet consists mainly of vegetable sources (88% TEI).
(Beis, et al., 2011)
Assess your needs on an individual basis.
Treat nutrient deficiencies specifically.
Eat plenty of fruit & veg for the best antioxidant protection.
Best sources: berries, broccoli, garlic, green tea & tomatoes. Pomegranate juice.
Add wheatgrass to your smoothies
Vit A, C, E, B, Ca, Fe, K, Na, Mg,
enzymes & 17 AA.
Sugar is detrimental to health.
Health = performance.
Reduces tissue elasticity.
Impairs DNA and protein structures.
Performance needs recovery.
After training, an athlete's immune system is inhibited for up to 6 hours (Venkatraman & Pendergast, 2002).
Clinical trials in athletes using nutritional supplements to counteract immune suppression are inconclusive. (Romeo, et al, 2010).
Over Training Syndrome
"Insufficient carbohydrates are one of the biggest risk factors for Overtraining Syndrome and depressed immunity."
The American College of Sports Medicine
Sleep / fatigue is the biggest issue for athletes. (AIS, 2007).
8-10 hours + naps.
Extended sleep = postive performance impact.
'Recovery' is limiting factor in performance.
High intensity exercise demands protein.
Endurance athletes are encouraged to follow a consistent high carb intake >60%, and 10-15% quality protein evenly spaced throughout the day.
Timed protein maximises protein synthesis in the body.
Fat plays important role in -
hormone production + delivery
source of fuel
Serving Size: 60 grams (600ml of a 10%
Sugars, glycogen, starches, dextrins, celluloses
How it works
Sustains high levels of carbohydrate oxidation in endurance.
Why take it
Delay fatigue through increasing plasma glucose concentrations.
Before: Eat high carb meal >90 mins before endurance event
During: 60 grams (600 ml of a 10% carbohydrate solution) per hr, varied carbohydrate
After: Replenish fluids + nutrition post event.
Eat natural with real food solutions - science proves they work! (Bananas, chia, raisins.)
Replenishment before-during-after is beneficial to performance.
Varied carbohydrates (glucose + fructose) to maximise transport systems.
eat clean | keep it simple | own your health
Serving Size: 500ml
Sports Drinks and Hydration
11 endurance athletes, 2 hrs, sodium vs placebo
Supplementation of sodium had no effect, positive or negative on sweat rate, perceived exertion, time to exhaustion, heat stress, cardio function. (Earhart et al., 2015)
413 Ironman athletes, 226.3km race
No significant differences in finishing times or physiological markers compared to placebo. (Butler et al., 2006)
US manufacturers do not need FDA approval to sell their product.
No real understanding on what works best for bodies let alone individuals.
Lack of evidence on the right demographic.
Upper Intake Levels are general and not for highly active, fit people.
Identifying The Risks
07557 990 229
how to eat - for your health concerns & vitality
deborah mctaggart nutritionist, MSc.
Calculate sodium intake and sweat loss. (IOC).
If you are exercising for <2h and sweat losses are not excessive, extra electrolytes will not benefit performance.
Eat water rich foods.
THE ENDURANCE ATHLETE
ENDURANCE = >2 HRS
Increased nutritional needs
Protein - rebuild muscle
Carbohydrate - high calorific demand
Vitamins & minerals
- co factors in high metabolic turnover
Detoxification & immunity support
Nevada Desert Studies
Thirst was a prolonged first stage of dehydration with no health risks at 7-10% of body weight loss
The volume of water that satisfied thirst maintained osmotic pressure.
Consistent training +
adequate rest =
Placebo vs expectancy
43 competitive endurance cyclists were divided with one group told they were given a carbohydrate sports dirnk when it was in fact water.
The group that were told nothing about what they were drinking performed 2% better than when they were told the truth.
The real effect of the carbohydrate was actually seen as a slight reduction in power (0.3%).
(Clarke, et al., 2000)
There is no magic bullet.
Preventative measures best.
Do not over train.
Purchase quality brands.
What are supplements?
The parts of the sum total of food we have defined, isolated & replicated in a laboratory.
What is food?
Food is complex, containing 1000s of compounds.