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Psychoactive Drugs

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by

Garrett Jones

on 28 October 2015

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Transcript of Psychoactive Drugs

Psychoactive Drugs
Definitions
Psychoactive Drug
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood (change consciousness)

Physical Dependence
physiological need for a drug marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms

Psychological Dependence
feeling of psychological need to use a drug (for example, to relieve negative emotions)

Addiction
compulsive drug craving and use
Tolerance
Withdrawal
discomfort and distress that follow discontinued use
diminishing effects with regular use
How Do Drugs Work?
Neurologically speaking...
Drugs change the way our neurotransmitters work.

1. Agonists: bind to receptor sites and mimic neurotransmitters

2. Antagonists: bind to receptor sites and prevent neurotransmitters from binding

3. Others work by increasing or decreasing release of specific neurotransmitters
Types of Psychoactive Drugs

Depressants


Stimulants


Hallucinogens
drugs that reduce neural activity
slow body functions
Includes alcohol, barbiturates, opiates
drugs that excite neural activity
speed up body functions
caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine
psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
LSD, Psilocybin, Marijuana
Depressants
Stimulants
Hallucinogens

drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment
Nembutal
Seconal
Amytal
Valium
Barbiturates (tranquilizers)
Prescribed as sleeping pills - reduce anxiety, reduce respiration, reduce blood pressure, reduce heart rate and reduce rapid eye movement (REM)sleep.
Overdose is lethal
High potential for physical and psychological addiction.
Barbiturates
Opiates
opium and its derivatives (such as morphine and heroin)
analgesics (painkillers)
opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
Alcohol
Most widely used and abused recreational drug in America.
Loss of inhibition, Memory problems, poor coordination, suppress breathing, reduces self-awareness, permanent brain and liver damage
High potential for physical and psychological addiction.
Effects...
Long term effects...
Cocaine
Causes self-confidence, euphoria, optimism
Short high increases short term tolerance
Crack (cocaine, ammonia, water, baking soda) is fast-acting, potent, solid
High potential for physical and psychological dependence
Ecstacy (MDMA)
Hallucinogenic amphetamine
Visual hallucinations, hyperactivity, fatigue, poor concentration
Long term effects include permanent brain damage and panic disorder
Low potential for physical and psychological dependence
drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes
Adderall, Ritalin, Dexedrine

Prescribed for ADHD, weight loss, narcolepsy, congestion
Amphetamines
Crystal-like powered substance, usually rock-like solid chucks
Amateur production – Acetone, chloroform, ammonia, chloric acid, ether used to break down ephedrine
Short rush/flash usually creates long binges
Methamphetamine
through 4:30
"Faces of Meth"
1998
2002
Nicotine
Elevated moods, improved memory, increase in attention
Major risk for cancer and heart disease
Strong psychological and physical withdrawal symptoms
Caffeine
Reduces drowsiness, improves problem-solving ability, induces anxiety, causes tremors
A moderate potential exists for physical and psychological dependence
Short term effects are generally well know to users.
Not really - research suggests that healthy adults can enjoy caffeine with only short-term effects.

These people should avoid caffeine:
Women who regularly consume 300 mg or more decrease chance of pregnancy and increase chance of miscarraige or delivering an underweight baby.
People with high anxiety
Those with hypertension, heart palpitations, ulcers
Long Term Effects of Caffeine?
LSD (Acid)
lysergic acid diethylamide
most powerful hallucinogenic drug
Short term memory loss, paranoia, flashbacks, panic attacks
Low potential for physical or psychological dependence
THC (Marijuana)
the major active ingredient in marijuana
triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations, euphoria, relaxation, time distortion, short term memory loss
Originates from hemp plant
Low potential for physical or psychological dependence
Psilocybin (Mushrooms)
Nausea first, then distorted perceptions, paranoia, nervousness
Depends on user’s mood, expectations, surroundings, frame of mind, etc
Flashbacks, HPPD
HPPD – Hallucination Persisting Perception Disorder
Mescaline
isolated from peyote (cactus)
Euphoria, hallucinations, anxiety, vomiting, headaches, rapid temp fluctuations
Low potential for physical dependence
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